The human body is a complex organization of many organs which have different functions that complement each other. The organs perform various functions. The organs are all interlinked with each other both physically and in terms of their roles. There are five major organ systems namely the circulatory, the digestive, the excretory, the nervous and endocrine system. Organ systems have significant functions such as the digestive system whose primary role is to take in, digest and absorb food into the bloodstream where it is converted into energy. After that, a different system takes over. This paper is an explanation of how the blood vessels and lymphatic organs work together to maintain homeostasis and the main arteries that supply blood to the head, trunk, upper and lower body, and limbs. In addition to that, the paper describes a pathway of the lymph from the left foot to the subclavian artery and outlines the difference between innate and acquired passive and active and natural and artificial immunity.
The circulatory system is also called the cardiovascular system. It has the primary function of permitting blood to flow throughout the body to transport the nutrients, oxygen, take away waste from the cells in the body. The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and has the central role of protecting the body against disease-causing pathogens. Two main cells are involved in the immune system namely T-cells and B cells, and they are found in the blood. The lymphatic system is made up of nodes and vessels that transport lymph in different places in the body. As blood circulates in various organs in the body, plasma leaks through the capillary walls. In such a case, it is known as the extracellular fluid which contains, oxygen, glucose and amino acids that are needed by the body. The extracellular fluid then seeps back into the bloodstream. Some of it, however, remains in the intercellular spaces. The lymphatic system then takes over. The extracellular fluid is collected in small lymphatic tubes that are spread throughout all the body organs. When the fluid enters the tubes, it's called lymph and it is collected in the lymphatic trunks located at the back of the neck which returns it to the bloodstream (Marques et al, 2016) if the lymph stays in the intercellular spaces, the concentration of nutrients, waste products or gases such as carbon dioxide in the spaces which affects the equilibrium in the body (homeostasis).
The systemic circulation has the leading role of transporting blood to all the other body parts. It is made up of several major blood vessels namely ascending aorta, the aortic arch and the descending aorta which further divides into the thoracic and abdominal aorta. In addition to that, there are several veins namely the superior and the inferior vena cava which transport deoxygenated blood from the body pars to the heart. The pulmonary circulation is made up of a pulmonary vein which transports blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation (Gaur, 2018). The portal circulation is formed by the superior and inferior mesenteric veins. Their primary function is to drain blood from the duodenum.
The main artery that transports blood to the head is the carotid artery, and the one responsible for carrying blood to the trunk is the pulmonary artery while the upper limbs are supplied by the subclavian artery. The lower limbs, on the other hand, are provided by the femoral artery. The body has two main veins namely the superior vena cava which drains blood from the arms and the head. The inferior vena cava, on the other hand, collects blood from all the other body parts to the heart.
Lymph flows from the left limb as explained below. It collects at the cisterna chyli which then connects to the thoracic duct to the left subclavian artery. The main difference between the T and B cells is that the T cells can only recognize viral antigens outside the infected cells while the B cells can recognize the surface antigens of bacteria and viruses (Randolph, 2017). T cells also have longer lifespans but lack surface antigens compared to B cells which lack surface antigens.
The spleen is an organ located next to the stomach, and it has several functions. It recycles old red blood cells and stores platelets and white blood cells. Tonsils are located in the lumbar part of the pharynx. They contain immune cells that kill pathogens that are trapped as they enter the mouth or nose before they spread to the rest of the body.
Vaccination is the introduction of weakened disease-causing pathogens into the bloodstream of an individual with the intention of creating a "memory" of the pathogens. It is highly recommended as it is one of the most effective measures that are used to minimize disease attack especially of the illnesses that are fatal. In addition to vaccination, the human body has it means of protection in the different types of immunity. To begin with, innate immunity is present in the body of an individual since birth while acquired immunity is gained by the exposure to disease-causing pathogens as it is during immunization. Acquired immunity also fights only specific pathogens, unlike innate immunity which is not specific. On the other hand, active immunity is developed by the body upon exposure to the pathogens while passive immunity is acquired from an external source such as when antibodies are passed from a mother to a child. Natural immunity is the type of immunity that also develops from the exposure to disease-causing pathogens under natural causes. Artificial immunity is gained by the introduction of disease-causing pathogens artificially as during vaccination.
The human body is made up of different systems all aimed at the best functioning of it. An excellent example is lymphatic system. Lymph is the fluid plasma that infiltrates the capillary walls and enters intracellular spaces. A large percentage of it returns to the bloodstream, but the remaining is called lymph and is collected by a system of ducts known as the lymphatic system. Different veins are used to supply blood to different parts of the body such as the head (provided by the carotid artery) among other veins. The body is made up of several systems all which play a role in the wellbeing of the individual.
Gaur, A. (2018). Pulmonary circulation | physiology. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/pulmonary-circulation
Marques, R. E., Marques, P. E., Guabiraba, R., & Teixeira, M. M. (2016). Exploring the homeostatic and sensory roles of the immune system. Frontiers in immunology, 7, 125.
Randolph, G. J., Ivanov, S., Zinselmeyer, B. H., & Scallan, J. P. (2017). The lymphatic system: integral roles in immunity. Annual review of immunology, 35, 31-52.
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