|Type of paper:||Article review|
|Categories:||Mental health Bipolar disorder|
Sparding et al. conducted "personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome" study in 2017, where they tried to establish the specific personality profiles characterized by individuals with bipolar disorder I and II. The study was conducted after the revelations from another survey conducted by Barnett and colleagues, which evaluated the personality of two sets of independent samples during euthymia through the utilization of the NEO Five-Factor approach. The study indicated that a bipolar patient in the United States presented about one standard deviation over the standard mean exhibited by an adult on Neuroticism. Additionally, bipolar patients presented higher impulsiveness. Thus, this triggered Erik et al. to evaluate the personal traits for clinical purposes, since the type of individual temperament may be utilized to determine the kind of illness. Therefore, the study aimed at identifying the two sub-types and evaluate if they vary by personality traits.
The study utilized eighty-six healthy individuals, one hundred and ten patients with bipolar disorder I, and eighty-six participants with bipolar disorder II. The participants were selected through a personality profiling conducted utilizing the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality tool, which was developed to identify vulnerabilities presented by different personalities and their correlates. The study involved the logistic regressions on the outcome variables such as mood episodes, violence, suicide attempts, and the number of days on sick leave to establish impacts of aggressiveness, disinhibition, and neuroticism on illness course. A third of the sample population represented scores equal to, or greater than the standard deviation compared to the normative mean on the universal neuroticism value (Sparding et al., 2017). However, the two bipolar disorder subtypes showed undistinguishable traits personal traits. Thus, the study established a conclusion that the largest portion represented scores that were equal to, or below the normative mean score on Neuroticism, inhibition, and aggressiveness. Thus, the personality profile was presented to possess little or no prognostic value for the period above two years.
Strengths of the Study
The study was based on an existing problem in the medical field as well as the utilization of works from other authors to present a solid background to the problem presented. The influence of personality traits on an individual's course on the two distinct bipolar disorders has been prevalent in the clinical health controls. This is represented by previous studies such as Barnett et al. (2011), who evaluated the interaction between prospective illness course and the personality scores gathered in euthymia. This led to the identification of the two subsets of bipolar disorder, thus raising the need to establish if the personal traits.
The researchers presented verifiable and reliable data to establish their results and conclusions for the study. The study gathered their data from participants from St. Goran Bipolar project after the patients had undergone through a detailed psychiatric examination from the North Stockholm's Affective Centre. Hence, this meant that the results and observations derived from the participants were accurate and represented actual information on the specific group under study. Additionally, the study incorporated a total of 291 participants, which represented a sample of the residents in the area. The region is estimated to hold a population of 316,400 (Sparding et al., 2017). This represents a reliable sample of the total population, which makes the study efficient by reducing the time and cost of conducting the study to the entire population.
Moreover, the researchers surveyed sequentially, which helped in the identification of the problem, collection, and breakdown of data, as well as deriving inferences and conclusions from the findings. A good research paper ought to illuminate a concise process and procedures, which coherently present how the researchers identified a research problem, gathered and analyzed data, and established the conclusions identified in the study. Sparding et al. (2017), presents a chronological research process, where they represented an elaborate background of the problem, followed by an indication of the methods utilized in gathering data, statistical analysis, presentation of the results, which included the utilization of graphs and tables as visual compliments (Petty, Thomson, & Stew, 2012). For instance, heat maps were utilized to indicate the aggressiveness-related scales, which was sub-divided into four quadrants in figure 4. Such results further resulted in the conclusion that personality scores do not predict any occupational functioning or the significant clinical outcomes within the first two years.
The study also presents a conclusive inference. The main aim of the research is to identify a firm and verifiable conclusion or a solution to the problem identified (Gravetter & Forzano, 2018). Else, a study cannot be considered successful if this condition is not achieved. Sparding et al. (2017), have established two conclusions, where, one states that people with bipolar disorder have higher scores of disinhibition, extraversion, and neuroticism as compared to those presented by typical population. Further, the study states that there are no significant variances between bipolar I and II subtypes in personality scores. These conclusions provide answers to the research problem or the objective of the research. Hence, the study can be said be conclusive and concise.
Weaknesses of the Study
The researchers did not explain the method utilized in the process of selecting the participants utilized in the survey. The study utilized representative participants from an area consisting of more than 316,400 residents. In a typical case scenario, the researchers would be expected to indicate the concept or approach utilized in selecting the participants. However, in this case, Sparding et al. did not incorporate the technique utilized in selecting the subjects interviewed. According to Theodorou (2013), this leads to the emergence of doubts about the authenticity of the results presented by the survey since the readers cannot establish the manner in which the participants were selected. It also incorporates the sense of biases, since the authors could have formulated and manipulated the results to suit their preference rather than the actual situation on the ground. Therefore, the authors could have included that detail to ensure that the results are verifiable and reliable in the long run.
In conclusion, the study "Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on the outcome" by Sparding et al. (2017), was conducted to identifying the two sub-types and evaluate if they vary by personality traits. It involved the logistic regressions on the outcome variables such as mood episodes, violence, suicide attempts, and the number of days on sick leave to establish impacts of aggressiveness, disinhibition, and neuroticism on illness course. The study exhibits strengths such as being based on an existing problem, the use of verifiable and reliable data to establish their results and conclusions for the study, conducting the survey in a sequential manner, and presenting a conclusive inference. However, the authors did not explain the method utilized in the process of selecting the participants utilized in the survey. However, this cannot be sufficiently utilized to dispute the accuracy and importance of the research. Therefore, the study can be said to have followed a good design and process and hence, said to be appropriate.
Barnett, J. H., Huang, J., Perlis, R. H., Young, M. M., Rosenbaum, J. F., Nierenberg, A. A., ... & Smoller, J. W. (2011). Personality and bipolar disorder: dissecting state and trait associations between mood and personality. Psychological medicine, 41(8), 1593-1604.
Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L. A. B. (2018). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Cengage Learning.
Petty, N. J., Thomson, O. P., & Stew, G. (2012). Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 2: Introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods. Manual therapy, 17(5), 378-384.
Sparding, T., Palsson, E., Joas, E., Hansen, S., & Landen, M. (2017). Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on the outcome. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 159.
Theodorou, N. (2013). Qualitative Research in the Health Sciences - Methodologies, Methods and Processes Qualitative Research in the Health Sciences - Methodologies, Methods, and Processes. Nursing Standard, 28(3), 28-28. doi: 10.7748/ns2013.09.28.3.28.s37.
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