Human psychology is a critical factor that determines not only an individual's exposure to diseases but also the speed and process of recovery. As a discipline, psychology provides a succinct basis on which to understand the origin and proliferation of mental illnesses. In this paper, the epidemiological trends, exposures, and signs of bipolar is discussed based on a particular case of Sabrina who is a victim suffering from bipolar. It begins with a comprehensive review of Sabrina’s health background, current and past experiences that have potential influence in the progression or manifestation of bipolar. The paper specifically explores Sabrina’s environment, heredity, medical history and brain chemical balance which all have an implication for the beginning and development of mania. Finally, this paper assesses the various available and potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of bipolar.
Bipolar disorder case study example
Sabrina is a 27 years old senior student at the University. She has a habit of concentrating in her studies, making new friends due to her unique outspokenness, as well as straining friendships at will due to her changing mood episodes. Less than two years ago, Sabrina narrated having had experienced her first major episode of mania while out of college running errands with the friends. This event occurred after she used a series of recreational drugs given to her by the friends. After using the drugs, Sabrina experienced a sudden change in mood that did not subside even after the effects of the drugs she used ended.
The next day, Sabrina says that she felt like she had mystically achieved an enlightenment and the knowledge of life. In fact, she felt like a Buddha or Gandhi of her time. Sabrina felt like she was invincible. This experience made it difficult for her to sleep. Subsequently, she could not sleep and stayed awake the entire night writing a series of poetry. She would talk like a chatterbox without stop though she used to be a calm personality. She could spend carelessly on things that were not necessities or sometimes offered to spend several dollars just buying things for her friends.
Sabrina describes her subsequent experiences as having been replete with emotions, especially when she does not achieve her academic expectations. She sometimes dislikes jokes from her friends and even writes them text messages when they are in the same room because she does not feel like talking to anybody. She sees herself as capable of achieving whatever she sets out for irrespective of whatever it takes to get them. The insistence by the instructor that her response to a simple biological question was wrong resulted in her latest episode of depression. This disappointment came at a time when she had ventured deeply into research and even developed simple but critical concepts on how to solve some complicated questions. She has remained depressed and even contemplates suicide. She feels that her serious studies are not paying back as anticipated hence delayed gratification.
In a quick change of moods, Sabrina finds herself going out more, avoiding classes and research and spending all his money in excessive drinking in which she turns violent. Sometimes she is hurt during such outings but does not refrain from them. The altercations with the friends in the bars and restaurants make her achieve some sense of autonomy and satisfaction that is beyond her disappointments. She can get into a public place, shout as if she is the only one present there and even confront the bouncers at the bar entrances oblivious of the dangers she poses to herself. In fact, she turns troublesome and reckless sometimes. Horrific and dangerous escapades provide her with a sense of relief especially when she feels dissatisfied with something.
Sabrina’s Early Life and Medical History
Sabrina had a childhood struggle with episodes of emotional decline from inescapable laws to strange highs that made her interactions with peers burdensome. In most cases, Sabrina spent many hours obsessing that people were talking negatively about her, worrying her body weight, uneasy with her appearance and feeling uncomfortable with her skin. She experienced difficulty in sleeping whereby during some nights it was impossible for her to sleep soundly.
On several days, the young Sabrina could make many trips up and down the staircase without stopping to gasp for air due to the rigor of movements involved. The teenager girl could arrive at the top stairs within a short time and refuse to come down once up there. At this high heights, Sabrina could feel like a saint with a particular feeling that she was an angel proclaiming to the children, dogs, grass and anything below her that cared to listen to the way things should be done best. Even with the lurking danger of tripping and falling on the hard surface below, Sabrina developed a feeling that should fly just like the birds or hover like a spirit thus not harming herself.
Sabrina remembers her parents as having insisted that she becomes the best in school and other aspects of social life. She cannot entertain anything that is unsuccessful. Whenever Sabrina feels part of a failure, she prefers to indulge in other harmful actives such as excessive talks, binge drinking, or complacency to leverage her emotions. Though she cannot trace any immediate family member who had episodes of mood shifts, Sabrina recalls that her grandmother was diagnosed with severe depression which disturbed her sleep and relationship with other members of the society.
When does Bipolar disorder manifest?
The first intervention in Sabrina’s case requires a critical assessment of her situation to determine whether her condition is bipolar disorder. The fundamental reason for this evaluation is that bipolar has symptoms that are consistent with other health conditions hence making it difficult to treat expressly (Barondes, 1998). Moreover, the bipolar co-occurs with other health complications including substance abuse, anxiety disorder, and eating disorder. Some of the common trends to assess include emotional patterns sleep changes, levels of individual activity and the presence of any unusual behaviors (Proudfoot et al., 2012). In addition, bipolar starts from an individual’s childhood hence the need for a proper background study of the victim from infancy through adolescence and early adulthood to determine any unusual experiences that could trigger, promote or severe the bipolar conditions.
To understand that Sabrina’s health status is bipolar, the other standard conditions which occur together with it that need adequate assessment and control include;
i. Psychosis: A person who experiences several episodes of mania or depression is predisposed to symptoms of psychosis including hallucinations, and delusions. For instance, Sabrina experiences moments of extreme enlightenment about life. She even perceives herself to be as knowledgeable about life as Mahatma Gandhi. This feeling often accompanies extreme mood changes.
ii. Anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: During Sabrina’s childhood, she expressed periods of high anxiety and desire to attract attention towards her. These often occur alongside extreme cases of bipolar.
iii. Substance Abuse: Sabrina would abuse drugs whenever she felt like a failure or did not meet her expectations. She misused her money on drugs such as alcohol. This occurrence often accompanies manic experiences.
After understanding that the primary condition that Sabrina is suffering from is bipolar with other accompanying conditions, it is also necessary to determine the actual form of bipolar from which she is suffering.
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