Free Essay for Everyone: Biological Evidence and Serology

Published: 2022-07-28
Free Essay for Everyone: Biological Evidence and Serology
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Forensic science
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1864 words
16 min read

The identification, detection, and categorization of body tissues in the form of remains that have been left in a crime scene are serology. A good crime scene investigator observes the scene keenly and to have a good report of the findings. The records are taken to the laboratory for recording, preserving and scrutinize evidence from the information recovered from the scene. The most delicate proof is obtained first while processing a crime scene, followed by the most obvious. Some case scenarios use special techniques to establish secret evidence. Most criminals clean up blood to hide evidence, although it's hard to clean all of it up since fluids can conceal under carpets or floorboards. These particular cases are then conducted using light torches which visualize blood stains and other liquids.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

Biological evidence collection and preservation

Events that occur at a scene are not usually apparent during the collection of evidence. The evidence collector is required to obtain evidence in a way that it can be preserved in case of further examining in future (Bennet, 1977, p255). This leads to a requirement of various scientific analysis procedures since evidence may need to be considered by each area of specialty. It is important to establish facts being obtained when collecting samples (Blake, 1992, p700). For instance, blood stains that are away from the scene could be those of an injured person or suspect and can provide information that can point to their recognition (Childs et al., 1994, p1271). To analyze biological evidence, reference samples are compared to evidence realized by the suspect and the victim. Biological evidence should not be exposed to a high amount of heat and humidity (Close, 1990, p333). Blood stains evidence is refrigerated to the date of transportation to the crime laboratory. The dried evidence is sealed in a brown paper and sealed at room temperature.

For chain of custody purposes the following has to be recorded; specific recovery location of evidence, the person that received the confirmation, time and date of evidence transfers, case numbers, description of container and proof, whether or not the bottle was sealed including the date and time of evidence collection and final identity of evidence( Festenstein,1981, p85). Unknown sample, known sample, reference and questioned evidence samples are identified. When evidence that is not recognized is taken and compared to evidence that is recognizable, an unknown example is derived. Known reference samples are evidence taken from the suspect (Falton, 1971, p762). Questioned evidence samples are examined in documents that are presented in a court of law. Scientific methods and processes are used to issue the report.

Case scenario one

Bill Brown reported his daughter Jane Douglas missing on eighteenth July 2002. Janes parents, Bill and Betty Brown were taking care of Jane's four kids Gemma, Bud, Bob and Emma over the weekend, when they got back to the city, at Jane's and noticed that her car was not present at the garage and she was not at home either (Gao et al., 1994, p7433). Between the trashcan and the back door, the garage and the trashcan, there were blood trails. The back door was open, and on entering the houses, large footprints could be easily identified leading from the kitchen to the lounge room towards the front door. The walls of the front of the lounge rooms had blood, and the kitchen floor was covered in a pool of blood. The kitchen sink had a visible diffused blood stain (Goodman, 1963, p377). Many doors handle, and the front porch light switch had blood stains on them. In the past one year, the father John Douglas had been separated from the kid's biological mother, Jane.

Police fact records from the interview with John Douglas

Two weeks ago, John spoke to Jane and had not had a glimpse of her since then. Since he was away on a hunting trip with friends over the weekend, his children would be staying with their maternal grandparents (Herbst et al., 1998, p496). According to police observation, John's truck had dirt and blood on the underside of the vehicle. John agreed to a medical examination and allowed the police to investigate his vehicle further.

John Douglas's truck crime scene examination

At the bed of the truck, there were some hunting knives and rifles. Present was a backpack that contained ropes, bloodstained shirts, and more massive blood stains at the back of the track. The driver's side foot had an enormous smear of blood while the steering wheel had a smear of blood (Hirshaut, 1970, p 502). According to John Douglass medical examination report, he has a most current laceration on his left hand which he got while skinning a deer. 10ml blood containing EDTA was collected from him (Lancefield, 1935, p335). John responds to these by mentioning that he shot and skinned an extensive beer and placed the carcass at the bed of the track. The injury and blood from his clothing are from the deer.

Questioned and reference samples from this scenario

Known reference sample evidence that was taken from the suspect, John was the blood stains on his truck. An examined evidence sample was the laceration on his left arm and the collected blood sample which after testing could be easily documented and argued in a court of law (Landsteiner, 1990). It's possible that John went hunting with his friends, but it's also possible that he pursued his wife instead due to their one-year separation. The blood stains in Jane's house could be tested too to determine the victim and suspect (Moenssens, 1973,p 412). There were possible struggling and a lot of movements identified by the bloodstains at the kitchen and the switch. The criminal was in a hurry and had little time cleaning the blood trails. By testing the blood stains in the house and comparing the same to the blood stains in John truck, it will be easier to identify if John was the one who attacked Jane and narrows down on options (Moller, 1984, p1102). If the blood stains test results do not match, then there will need to identify the criminal using the blood to match their DNA.

Case scenario two

Pete Smith and Jill Jones met at a local bar on July 18th, 2002. They both left the bar together at 9:45 pm. He offered to drive her home, stopping at the park to overlook the city lights on their way home. Allegedly, Jill claims that Pete assaulted her in the car, sexually. During the assault, she says that Pete bit her on the shoulder through her t-shirt (Padgett, 1977, p656). According to Jill Jones medical examination, the assault took place at 10 pm while the survey was conducted at 1 am .a sexual assault investigation kit that was made from Jill Jones and handed to the police contained the following; a virginal swab, vaginal smear, saliva sample and a 10ml vial of blood containing EDTA (Simonsen, 1953, p36). Her underpants and t-shirts were also submitted to the laboratory. On Pete's car, a white stain was present on the front seat, and some other stains also present in the vehicle.

Interview with Pete Smith Police record

Pete was interviewed about the alleged sexual assault. He asserts that he offered to give her a ride home and on their way, they stopped to view the city lights (Soderhall, 1975, p8434).

Pete says that there was no intercourse between him and Jill. From him were collected saliva samples and a 10ml vial of blood containing EDTA.

Questioned sample and reference samples from this scenario

The white stains from Pete's car front seat and his sample 10ml vial of blood containing EDTA could be taken to the laboratory, tested and documented to see any traits that could lead to evidence; the matter is arguably through scientific analysis (Sweet et al. 1997, p.320).

Her underpants are an excellent source of proof since seminal fluid drain from the anus and vagina over time after intercourse (Zhou, 1977). Referenced sample evidence includes the fact that they were together in the car and there was no one else present, and the fact that Jill medical examination took place three hours after they left the club.

Serology tests are usually straightforward and simple. To identify the biological fluids during analysis of serology, confirmatory and presumptive testing is confirmed. In likely trial, proving that is specific to the body fluid in question and reasonably sensitive is quickly performed. It only shows a presence of a body fluid in an item. Confirmatory testing is confidential but takes a much longer time since DNA testing can be considered under confirmatory tests.


Bennett, D., Mathieson, B.J., Scheid, M., Yanagisawa, K., BOYSE, E.A., WACHTEL, S. and CATTANACH, B.M., 1977. Serological evidence for H-Y antigen in Sxr, XX sex-reversed phenotypic males. Nature, 265(5591), p.255.

Blake, E., Mihalovich, J., Higuchi, R., Walsh, P.S. and Erlich, H., 1992. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQa oligonucleotide typing on biological evidence samples: casework experience. Journal of Forensic Science, 37(3), pp.700-726.

Childs, J.E., Ksiazek, T.G., Spiropoulou, C.F., Krebs, J.W., Morzunov, S., Maupin, G.O., Gage, K.L., Rollin, P.E., Sarisky, J., Enscore, R.E. and Frey, J.K., 1994. Serologic and genetic identification of Peromyscus maniculatus as the primary rodent reservoir for a new hantavirus in the southwestern United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 169(6), pp.1271-1280.

Close, T.J. and Chandler, P.M., 1990. Cereal dehydrins: serology, gene mapping, and potential functional roles. Functional Plant Biology, 17(3), pp.333-344.

Evidence that DNA-A of a geminivirus associated with severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda has arisen by interspecific recombination. Journal of General Virology, 78(8), pp.2101-2111.

Festenstein, H. and Schmidt, W., 1981. Variation in MHC antigenic profiles of tumor cells and its biological effects. Immunological reviews, 60(1), pp.85-127.

Fulton, C., Kane, R.E. and Stephens, R.E., 1971. The serological similarity of flagellar and mitotic microtubules. The Journal of cell biology, 50(3), pp.762-773.

Gao, F., Yue, L., Robertson, D.L., Hill, S.C., Hui, H., Biggar, R.J., Neequaye, A.E., Whelan, T.M., Ho, D.D. and Shaw, G.M., 1994. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology. Journal of Virology, 68(11), pp.7433-7447.

Goodman, M., 1963. Serological analysis of the systematics of recent hominoids. Human biology, 35(3), pp.377-436.

Herbst, L.H., Greiner, E.C., Ehrhart, L.M., Bagley, D.A. and Klein, P.A., 1998. Serological association between spirorchidiasis, herpesvirus infection, and fibropapillomatosis in green turtles from Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 34(3), pp.496-507.

Hirshaut, Y., Glade, P., Vieira, L.O.B., Ainbender, E., Dvorak, B. and Siltzbach, L.E., 1970. Sarcoidosis, another disease associated with serologic evidence for herpes-like virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 283(10), pp.502-506.

Lancefield, R.C., and Hare, R., 1935. The Serological Differentiation of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Strains of Hemolytie Streptococci from Parturient Women. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 61, pp.335-49.

Landsteiner, K., 1990. The specificity of serological reactions. Courier Corporation.

Moenssens, A.A., Inbau, F.E. and Starrs, J.E., 1973. Scientific evidence in criminal cases (p. 412). Mineola, NY: Foundation Press.

Moller, B., Taylor-Robinson, D. and Purr, P., 1984. Serological evidence implicating Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease. The Lancet, 323(8386), pp.1102-1103.

Padgett, B.L., Rogers, C.M. and Walker, D.L., 1977. JC virus, a human polyomavirus associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: additional biological charac...

Cite this page

Free Essay for Everyone: Biological Evidence and Serology. (2022, Jul 28). Retrieved from

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism