|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Analysis Medicine Stress Nursing care|
Betty Neuman's Theory is selected for analysis in this paper because it provides comprehensive information about the relationship between physical factors and patients' health. In Betty Neman's Theory, three worlds are commonly used to illustrate how stress affects the health care system (Butts & Rich, 2013). The words are inevitable, painful, and intensifying. According to Betty Neuman, the three words are the main characteristics of stress. The theory focuses on the relationship between a person and stress. Also, the theory provides how the person responds to stress and factors that reconstitute a progressive nature. The Neuman System Model offers a broad, system-based, and holistic framework to nursing for maintaining flexibility. In this case, Betty Neuman's Theory focuses on the ability of the patient's system to respond to environmental stressors. In this case, the theory offers explicit information on how the client's stability is achieved through primary, tertiary, and secondary nursing interventions to reduce stressors.
According to Flaherty (2013), Betty Neuman's System Model is a complex, open-system related perspective that offers a unifying approach for different concerns in the nursing profession. A system is a boundary for a single patient, a group of clients, or even different groups that can be seen as a society. According to Neuman's Theory, the client system and its relationship with environmental stressors lead to the delineation of the important domains in nursing concerns (Flaherty, 2013). Also, Neuman's Theory assumes that a client/patient is an open system that can respond to environmental factors.
The client's variables comprise developmental, sociocultural, spiritual, psychological, and physiological factors (Butts & Rich, 2013). Also, the client system comprises the basic structure protected by resistance boundaries. The normal level of health is determined by the flexible defense line. The environmental stressors are inter-, extra-, and interpersonal and result from external and internal surroundings.
Rationales for Selecting Neuman's System Model
The rationales for selecting Neuman System Model (NSM) is based on the ability to promote creative thinking in nursing practices and offer effective preventive measures ensuring sustainable health care delivery. The emphasis on primary, secondary, and tertiary is important in promoting preventive intervention in nursing and enhancing client care (Butts & Rich, 2013). NSM is an important system-based approach for addressing different international concerns in health care. The model is also selected because it provides comprehensive information for improving the interaction between nurses and clients.
Neuman's System Model is a nursing theory that involves the uses of a holistic framework that allows nurses to apply creativity in promoting quality service delivery (Butts & Rich, 2013). Creativity in all nursing practices promotes client safety and satisfaction. The Neuman System Model also helps clients in enhancing their health by establishing strong defense lines for resisting environmental stressors. The model assumes that all human beings are layered and multidimensional with continuous developmental capabilities.
Also, people have dynamic relations with environmental factors that may lead to influential stressors. In this case, all nurses are required to understand the effects of environmental stressors and determine how human beings respond to these factors. The ability of nurses to understand the impacts of stressors on the health status of patients is important in ensuring quality services in a facility (Butts & Rich, 2013).
Comparison of Neuman System Model with Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory
Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory focuses on the abilities of a patient to perform individual activities to maintain their well-being, health, and life (Butts & Rich, 2013). Dorothea Orem developed her nursing theory between 1959 and 2001 (Butts & Rich, 2013). Orem's Self-Care Theory has been considered one of the effective models for application in nursing practice. Also, Orem's Self-Care Theory is widely used in enhancing patient satisfaction because its scope has general and broad concepts that improve nursing practices. The comparison of Neuman System Model with Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory is based on important nursing concepts provided by the developers.
Fist, Orem's Self-Care Theory defines nursing as an art in which practitioners offer specialized assistance to patients, on the other hand, Neuman System Model defines nursing as a science, but not an art (Turner & Kaylor, 2015). Second, Orem's Theory emphasizes the importance of self-care activities while Neuman System focuses on the stressors that affect the health status of clients. Neuman System Model recommends the incorporation of self-care only to avoid environmental factors that may lead to health stressors when clients are receiving home-stay care services (Butts & Rich, 2013).
Third, Orem's Self-Care Theory assumes that ecological factors include family and biological features while Neuman System Model analyzes the environment as chemical and physical components that contribute to stressors. In this case, Orem's Self-Care Theory assumes that environment help in promoting health status of the patients because family members offer appropriate assistance to their loved ones. Lastly, Orem's Self-Care Theory incorporates an important agency model for improving patient' well-being and health status (Butts & Rich, 2013). The self-care agency provided by Dorothea Orem analyzes the relationship between various nursing concepts like patient safety and satisfaction.
Application of Neuman System Model in Nursing Practice
The nursing profession involves various activities designed to improve patient safety and satisfaction. The experience of clients with the services offered in a facility depends on how staff collaborate (Turner & Kaylor, 2015). Neuman System Model has been applied by various hospitals, health clinics, and nursing homes to promote patient satisfaction and experience. Nursing practices that involve the application of Neuman's Theory include patient assessment, nursing diagnosis, outcome planning and identification, implementation of strategic interventions, and evaluation procedures (Turner & Kaylor, 2015). Most of the health facilities in the United States of America have incorporated Neuman System Model to improve the outcomes of nursing practices and ensure patient satisfaction.
First, assessment of patients/clients involves the application of NSM to attain appropriate results. Patient assessment involves the recording of personal data like age, gender, marital status, name, and referral source. The identification of the patient's profile information requires the application of the Neuman System Model for the appropriate assessment process (Flaherty, 2013). For instance, the theory covers the psychological and physiological information based on the client's gender and marital status. Some of the stressor perceived by clients during the assessment process include psychological disturbances due to their disease states. Anticipating is one of the severe and life-threatening stressors among patients. Neuman System Model has been applied to determine how the health status of patients affects psychological well-being (Flaherty, 2013). Also, the theory is crucial in determining how the psychological nature of client affects their overall health.
Some stressors affecting the health status of a patient are determined by nursing personnel. For example, persistent fatigue, negative thoughts, depressive ideations, hospitalization, and massive weight loss. Intrapersonal factors have also been determined using Neuman System Model because they help in improving patient assessment outcomes in nursing practice. Assessment of stressors related to various organ systems in the body necessitates for the application of the Neuman System Model (Flaherty, 2013). For example, assessment of gastrointestinal tract conditions makes nurses consider stressors that result in nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite. Also, the environmental stressors that lead to cardiovascular system problems are assessed through the use of Neuman System Model.
In some cases, the stressors affect both psychological and physiological well-being of a client; therefore, making it difficult to obtain appropriate assessment results. Environmental factors like high temperatures contribute to stressors that affect the patient's physiological functions (Turner & Kaylor, 2015). For instance, cyanosis due to environmental stressors affect the integumentary system of a client. The accumulation of waste products leads to various respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (Flaherty, 2013). In this case, toxic substances like lead and mercury result in multiple organ dysfunction; therefore, Neuman System Model help in ensuring effective assessment procedures are applied in nursing practice.
Second, the Neuman System Model focuses on the incorporation of self-care activities in all nursing practice. The self-care activities like getting out of bed without assistance help in determining disease prognosis and the level of patient's recovery from the medical condition. Self-care is one of the essential components of the Neuman System Model (Flaherty, 2013). In this case, self-care activities determine how patients respond to the stressors and the desire to overcome challenges related to disease states. Some patients apply self-care activities to prevent environmental factors like extreme temperatures that may subject them to severe stressors when there is no one to assist them, particularly during their home-stay nursing care. Also, some nursing facilities recommend self-care practices as a way of promoting quick recovery among patients.
Third, the evaluation of the patient's health status and the level of recovery also involve the application of the Neuman System Model (Flaherty, 2013). The summary of diagnostic results and impression focuses on the reporting of discrepancies related to the perception of patents and nurses. The interpersonal factors like weight, height, blood pressure, heart rate, and other patient evaluation activities necessitate for the use of Neuman System Model in diagnostic procedures (Flaherty, 2013).
Fourth, psycho-social well-being affects patient care practices in the health facility Some of the psychological factors include anxiety and depressive mood of the patient due to his/her condition. The social beliefs of clients have both positive and negative impacts on nursing practices (Butts & Rich, 2013). In this case, the racial differences contribute to psychological and cultural stressors in the nursing profession. In most cases, all nurses in the United States of America are trained on the importance of respecting the diversity of clients both within and beyond the premises of their facilities.
Lastly, spiritual belief system determines the quality of patient care services. Also, the spiritual development of clients affects the abilities to avoid the stressors that may delay recovery and affect the quality of assessment results (Flaherty, 2013). Religious beliefs of a client are among the inevitable factors analyzed in the Neuman System Model because they determine the psychological nature and well-being of human beings (Flaherty, 2013). Also, spiritual beliefs are utilized in evaluating how friends and family members are supportive of the patient.
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