From my findings in the article that approximately 90% of the community depends upon the commercial fishing business of turtles, especially if the fish traps trapped the turtles. Also noted that besides, the villagers harvested the turtle's eggs for either their subsidence purposes or commercial reasons. Hence, an alert on the extinction of the species since no more reproduction would occur, and if there happened, it would not be depended upon in the ecosystem for the future generation. At first, I would recommend that we establish a local fishing industry such that we would buy the harvests and process for exportation then through our consortium we start up open forums, training seminars to the fishermen concerning how we would maintain the turtle's ecosystem and ensure the breeding does not stop. This would cub the issue of harvesting eggs for commercial. Two levels might be applicable in the conservation of the ecosystem where the trees should not be harvested with no replacement for rain purposes and as well conserve the ecosystem of the turtles by ensuring no plantation covers the surface. Also, I prefer animal conservation by providing the turtle eggs aren't overharvested, thus maintain the species reproduction.
Cane Toad in Australia
The cane toad is a species that was deliberately introduced into the Australian ecosystem from Hawaii in 1935 by the Bureau of Sugar Experiment in their attempt to control the grey-backed can beetle, which later was unsuccessful. Today cane toads occur extensively along the eastern and northern half of the Queensland as well as to the range of the river drainage areas spreading through Kakadu National Park in the Northern land. The population of the cane toads by 2018 was approximately 200 million. As an environmentalist, I would create facilitate the establishment of cane toads' ecosystem since there are various merits obtained from them to start with how they were reared as pets due to their calm nature towards humans. Considering the negative impact, the cane toad had played a part in by poisoning some animals regarded as predators in the ecosystem. I would support their existence since most small animals are not affected by the cane toads; instead, they have adopted a tolerance way of living with them. I am taking an example of native toad where the cane toads reduce their abundance population due to high competition of food. Besides, the frogs are eaten by toads. Worth taking note that the cane toads would flourish in several ecosystems only if there were food to feed on. I would propose that research on breeding the frogs and cane toads such that we try eliminating some disadvantages on the poisonous status of the toads. Large numbers of human beings tend to project fear of cane toads of which it's normal but viewing from the point of view on how profitability it is; then, I would develop the love and care towards cane toads. I would advocate for supporting the ecosystem of the toads to the public.
Causes of overexploitation
Overexploitation, or referred to as overharvesting, is the activity of harvesting or harnessing an existing resource in extreme measures without considering methods of reinjection for continuity. With excessive overexploitation depletion, destruction or extinction of the resource may occur. Extinction of species- Human beings tends to overharvest the fisheries, thus realizing later from the data that some species are no longer available in the ecosystem. Statistically, we have the graph presentation on different country's levels of consumption and interpreting the analysis; generally, there were high yields of fish raising a high demand and supply for the species with an exemption of Kenya and India where the rate of consumption was relatively constant. Similarly, the bush meat also hunted in the tropical regions was overhunted to the extent that today, some species have no traits of existence. This was also done extensively for unregulated commercial purposes. From the marine graphical representation of levels of exploitation with years, decline levels are clearly stated; thus, the yielding levels lower. European fishing has produced a significant impact on overfishing. Also, the ecosystems are damaged since there is a certain amount of energy required for fish growth over the years with more exploitation. Methods invented for the harvest of fishing has contributed much by overexploitation and as well as damaging the organisms in the sea like surviving cuts from boats. Deforestation is another major issue regarding overexploitation. The more the trees are used up for firewood and others for commercial purposes automatically, the climate system is interfered with.
Significance of Map from a conservation perspective
High-resolution Global Maps of 21st Century forest cover change will be the map used in the paper. Through the map, we have learned and interpreted different biomes with the species sheltered in them. From the maps, the regions that were dominated by tree cover, Forest loss, Forest gain, and both forest gain and loss were ell indicated such that a relationship was established on the prospects of species dependent with particular biome. Levels of population or extinction would also be outlined by considering the climatic conditions present in each ecosystem. In the future, ecologists will collect data on the same biomes and compare it with the past, thus foretelling what impacts might be affecting the systems. For instance, the ecologists might discover some extinction of species or some existence of a particular species, thus setting grounds on conservation of these systems.
Reasons for habitat loss of different biomes
Habitat is lost and more so degraded in a scenario when natural activities destroy habitat to an extent where no ecological community can be sheltered there. Thus, resulting in the decline of species and loss of biodiversity.
Tropical Forest Biome: The tropical forest is a biome with the most abundant biomass living and as well plays a part in boosting a few of the highest rates of terrestrial biodiversity. Rain forests are the most endangered habitat and also most vulnerable to deforestation. Various human activities among harvesting natural resources for industrial purpose and urbanization- hydroelectric projects, overfishing, and erosion from deforestation are inflicting damage on the global economy and local people.
Temperate deciduous forest biome: Temperate deciduous forest is dominated by a variety of temperate forests with trees that lose their leaves annually. Destruction of the biome develops environmental catastrophes that alliterate the rainfall patterns, accelerate the effect of soil erosion and floods hence the habitat loss for a significant population of species; plants, animals, and insects.
Boreal forest biome: Boreal forest biome grows in parts of the northern hemisphere with freezing temperatures. Mostly the sheltered species are cold-tolerant coniferous species like spruce, snowshoe, red squirrels, and fir. Human activities like industrialization have primarily threatened boreal birds with an effect on climatic changes and habitat loss. Global warming has also altered the climate making the temperatures of this biome to rise hence a habitat loss to species of cold-tolerant and with time other species which survive in warmer ecosystems. Shifting of species is experienced.
Impacts of overexploitation of one species to other species in the ecosystem.
Overharvesting of one species can either impact other species in the ecosystem in either way. A Decrease in the survival abilities of other species that depended on exploited species as food in the ecosystem. Thus levels of energy decline and tend to be over competed for. To the species that the overexploited depended upon as food will positively be impacted since the predator is no longer in the system. Near populations might also be affected and shift to a drop. The food web consists of many food chains. The food chain is a single path to how an animal finds its food. Taking an example of an aquatic ecosystem: where more fishing if done excessively, there will be an effect on other species in the sea and might threaten the destruction of the ecosystem unless conserved.
Rosser, A. M., & Mainka, S. A. (2002). Overexploitation and species extinctions. Conservation Biology, 16(3), 584-586.
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