|Type of paper:||Report|
|Categories:||Learning Child development Human behavior Psychological disorder|
RAD is a disorder associated with young people. It is characterized by unsuitable shared relating across different relations who should be at the age of five years. Even though young people who have shown symptoms of RAD tend to have some behavioral setbacks and psychosocial complexity than children who do not have RAD. The primary goal of behavioral RAD is to ensure that children under the age of five years overcome some of their behavioral setbacks and psychological complexities that children without a good caregiver experience or develop. The behavioral goal of RAD is to improve the learning process of children. Little research has been done on how to overcome RAD, but the only course of action that seems to provide a promising result can only be applied to reduce the same problem in children. The issue of poor social interaction is caused by the inability to meet basic emotional and physical needs of children. It is also attributed the absence of an excellent caregiver to allow a child to create a severe bond or attachment. The problem can be overcome through the use of various theories such as Bruner 'theory of cognitive development
Bruner's Theory of Cognitive Development outlines that learning is an active process where young people or children are given the opportunity to develop their ideas depending on their current condition (Bruner, 1983). Children have the opportunity to identify, convert information, formulate a hypothesis and come up with a well-informed decision when depending upon the cognitive structure. It is the responsibility of cognitive architecture to ensure an individual so much more about the information they have acquired or gained (Bruner, 1973). The instructor must encourage children to identify principles without the assistance of anybody but it is necessary for the learner and the teacher to have an active dialog. The instructor has a responsibility of translating information to learners in such a way that they can understand to allow learners to build upon what they have been learned (Bruner, 1960). This theory has three basic principles, and it requires directives to be concerned with experience and contexts that stimulate students to learn. The instructions must also be created in such a way that students can easily understand what is being taught and it must be able to transplant and seal all the gaps (Bruner, 1966). The teacher is required to only concentrate on resources that motivate learners, support their learning and also ensure that learners discover the main points without the assistance of the teacher. The main thing in this theory is communication because it allows the student to understand the instructions given by the teacher.
The approach to the desired goal would considerably change with the introduction of Bruner's Theory of Cognitive Development. Children will start applying three different modes of storing knowledge and encoding memory. Children with less than one year will encode action based information and save them in their mind as opposed to the usual way of learning. For example, it is likely for a baby to remember shaking a rattle. This approach requires young children to recall past events using motor responses. The method allows a child to shake rattle which has just dropped down in such a way the rattle is required to generate the accustomed sound. The approach also induces young people to start storing information in the form of images which allows mental pictures to be kept in the mind's eye.
The method therefore supports learning an emerging subject as the approach helps in having diagrams and illustrations to build new idea. The plan is consequently is capable of enhancing the ability of abstract contract concepts. It, therefore, encodes stimuli and ensures that learners are not experiencing the difficulties of handling appearances to generate multifaceted and supple cognition. The use of words supports the development of ideas they stand for and eliminate learning constraints available. The theory has an assumption that education is not required to impart knowledge but to enhance thinking of children and their problem solving skills. It is also necessary for learning to build symbolic thinking especially to young people but not to help children impact knowledge. It is, therefore, essential for active children to construct their ideas and experience without the support of instructors (Bruner, 1961). The theory also assumes it adopts views and believes that children can understand complex concepts without matching the complexity of subject materials with the cognitive stage of development of children. The theory also assumes that learners construct their knowledge through organization and categorization of information through a coding system. According to this theory, the creation of a coding system is effective through its discovery but not getting it from the instructor. Discovery is a fundamental concept in learning because it allows children to construct their knowledge without the assistance of the teacher. The teacher, therefore, should desist from teaching information through rote learning but only facilitate the learning process. The teacher must, hence, design lessons that make the learners understand the relationship between bits of information and this is achieved by offering information to learners need without organizing it for them.
Bruner, J. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bruner, J. (1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Bruner, J. (1983). Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language. New York: Norton.
Bruner, J. S. (1961). "The Act of Discovery." Harvard Educational Review 31: 21-32.
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