Directions: Read the article and answer the questions below. Most answers can be found in the article, others may have to be searched online. Please use complete sentences to answer the questions unless otherwise instructed, do not copy and paste from the article, use your own words.
Reference: Shin SH, Lim CH, Kim YS, Lee YH, Kim SH, Kim JC. Twenty-eight-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of nano-sized lanthanum oxide in male sprague-dawley rats. Environ Toxicol. 2016 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]
In the manuscript, the first goal is to demonstrate that the study performed is important and addresses some need. Why did the researchers believe this study is important? And what need does it address?
The research was of high significance to the researchers as they aimed at showing the world the risks involved in the use of lanthanum in the tech industry. Lanthanum is highly toxic in nature (Makino et al., 2015). Their primary goal of addressing the problem was to enlighten people and the high-tech industries on the dangers of lanthanum and pave the way for new research that will ensure the material is harmless to humans.
What is the purpose of the study?
The aspiration of the study was to present toxicological data required for the risk or hazard assessment of Lanthanum to prevent possible adverse impacts to human health and the environment.
Did the researchers investigating acute, sub-chronic, or chronic outcomes from exposure?
Yes, the researchers investigated sub-chronic, acute, or chronic outcomes from exposure using NANoREG. Use of NANoREG provides solutions and answers to existing problems by complementing new knowledge with existing data (Kohonen et al., 2014).
The methods should explain in great detail how the study was performed to the point that other researchers can replicate the study. Describe how the laboratory rats were exposed to the aerosol, and how the outcomes were measured?
The laboratory rats were exposed to nano-sized for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days. The outcome was measured using OPC, with ICP-MS. Lanthanum in the whole body was measured in 20 volumes of 65% nitric acid.
In concise bullet points, describe the major findings of the study.
The major discovery of the research was the toxic nature of lanthanum and its effects on living things.
Another finding was the necessity of studying more on lanthanum by high-tech industries.
What do the researchers suggest the major findings indicate?
According to Darley and Luethge (2016), research findings pave the way for new solutions to existing problems. The outcomes of the investigation show that over a given period, lanthanum affects the body organs of living creatures especially the lungs as depicted by the rats.
Researchers must provide limitations of the study, what were limitations of this study?
Every research has its limitations (Wells, Kolek, Williams, & Saunders, 2015). One of the limitations of the study was the difficulty in comparison of distinct toxicity results as there were heterogeneous experimental conditions set for each test.
What do the researchers suggest should be the next step? What should be investigated in the future?
The exact mechanism of action and further study for more precise toxicity assessment should be investigated in the future. According to Stijepovic, Djenadic, Srdic, and Winterer (2015), future research will reduce the health risks posed by lanthanum on living organisms.
In the article, the authors describe in vivo and in vitro studies. What does each of these terms mean?
In-vivo means a process that takes place in a living organism while In-vitro is a study performed with microorganism outside their biological context (Lee et al., 2016).
Darley, W. K., & Luethge, D. J. (2016). The Role of Faculty Research in the Development of a Management Research and Knowledge Culture in African Educational Institutions. Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 15(2), 325-344. doi:10.5465/amle.2013.0337
Kohonen, P., Ceder, R., Smit, I., Hongisto, V., Myatt, G., Hardy, B., & ... Grafstrom, R. (2014). Cancer Biology, Toxicology and Alternative Methods Development Go Hand-in-Hand. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 115(1), 50-58. doi:10.1111/bcpt.12257
Lee, D., Chung, S., Yoo, H. J., Kim, S. J., Woo, C., Kim, S., & ... Woo, D. (2016). Neurochemical Changes Associated with Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats: In Vivo and In Vitro Measurements. Plos ONE, 11(4), 1-17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153346
Makino, M., Kawaguchi, K., Shimojo, H., Nakamura, H., Nagasawa, M., & Kodama, R. (2015). Extensive lanthanum deposition in the gastric mucosa: The first histopathological report. Pathology International, 65(1), 33-37. doi:10.1111/pin.12227
Stijepovic, I., Djenadic, R., Srdic, V. V., & Winterer, M. (2015). Chemical vapour synthesis of lanthanum gallium oxide nanoparticles.Journal Of The European Ceramic Society, 35(13), 3545-3552. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2015.05.020
Wells, R. S., Kolek, E. A., Williams, E. A., & Saunders, D. B. (2015). "How We Know What We Know": A Systematic Comparison of Research Methods Employed in Higher Education Journals, 1996-2000 v. 2006-2010. Journal Of Higher Education, 86(2), 171-195.
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