Approved By

Published: 2019-11-11 08:30:00
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Chairperson, Thesis Committee

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Dean, The Graduate School

Thesis Committee Approval Sheet

Approved By

___________________________ __________

Fengxiang Qiao, Ph.D, Chairperson, Thesis Committee Date

___________________________ __________

Yi Qi, Ph.D., Committee Member Date

___________________________ __________

Mehdi Azimi, Ph.D., Committee Member Date

___________________________ ___________

Hyum Min Hwang, Ph.D., Graduate Date

Table of Contents

Cover sheet...i

Thesis Committee Approval List.ii

Table of Contents.....iii

VITAv

List of tables.............vi

List of figures...vii

List of abbreviations................viii

Abstractx

Acknowledgement...xii

Chapter 1: Introduction....1

Chapter 2: Literature Review.......3

Summary and Review Efforts from EPA....3

Summary and Review Efforts from SCAG.....5

Summary and Review Efforts from HEI.....6

Summary and Review Efforts from Los Angeles Collaborative for Environmental Health and Justice...7

Summary and Review Efforts from Port of Houston Authority.....8

Summary and Review Efforts from Individual Researchers......10

Chapter 3: Design Methodology....12

Chapter 4: Results and Analysis....15

Results.....15

Analysis.......17

Recommendations....18

Sources and Control of Gas Emissions....21

Chapter 5: Conclusion........24

Current State of Events....24

Mitigation initiatives....25

Future Plans.....26

References......27

VITA

June 12, 1981, Born Houston, TX

2004 B.S., Civil Engineering from Azad University

Fars, Iran

2013-2015 Graduate Research Assistant

Texas Southern University

Houston, Texas

2015Inspector Trainee

City of Houston

Houston TX

2016CMT Field Engineer

Geo Science Engineering and Testing LLC

Houston, TX

Major Field Transportation planning and Management

LIST OF TABLESTablePage

1: Emission factors for OGV main engines using residual oil, g/kWh4

2: Estimated 2005 Port Truck Emissions for the Ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Oakland (rounded)..8 3: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Classes...13

4: Port of Houston NOx emission sources in both numbers and percentages.19

LIST OF FIGURES

TablePage

SEQ Exhibit \* ARABIC 1: Goods Movement NOx and PM 2.5 Emissions in SCAG by Source, 2010...7

List of Abbreviations

OGV Ocean-Going Vessel

CHE Cargo Handling Equipment

CO2 Carbon dioxide

NOx Oxides of nitrogen

HC Hydrocarbons

PM - Particulate matter

CO - Carbon Monoxide

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

SSD - Slow-speed diesel

MSD - Medium-speed diesel

HSD - High-speed diesel

ST - Steam turbines

RO Renewable organizations

MDO - Marine Diesel Oil

MGO - Marine Gas Oil

GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight Rating

APS - Auxiliary Power Systems

HEI Health Effects Institute

Tx - Texas

SB Steam Boilers

GT Gas Turbine

TPY - Tons Per Year

SIP State Implementation Plan

TERP - Texas Emission Reduction Plan

VOC Volatile Organic Compounds

EMS Energy Management System

TxLED - Texas Low Emission Diesel

ULSD - Ultra-Low Sulphur Diesel

SCR - Selective Catalytic Reduction

PHA - Port of Houston Authority

ABSTRACT

A Synthesis of Port Emission: Current Status and Future Directions

By

Ehson Khademi

Texas Southern University, 2016

Advisor: FENGXIANG QIAO, Ph.D, Associate Professor

Mobile source port emissions are generated by marine vessels and by land-based sources at ports. Marine emissions come primarily from diesel engines operating on ocean-going vessels (OGVs), tugs and tows, dredges, and other vessels operating within a port area. Land-based emission sources include cargo handling equipment (CHE) such as terminal tractors, cranes, container handlers, and forklifts, as well as heavy duty trucks and locomotives operating within a port area. These land-based sources also are likely to have diesel engines.

The purpose of this study was to synthesize various literature relating to port emissions. There are various hotspots which feature a big number of sources of pollutants all at the same time. For example, the port of Houston handles about 70 percent of the containerized cargo in US Gulf of Mexico. There are 8 main terminals, six of which are general cargo and two are container terminals named Barbours cut and Bayport.

Emission factors analyzed in this study are Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM). This paper also analyses these emissions from various sources including heavy-duty trucks, cargo handling, harbor craft, ocean-going and freight trains. Other sources included as contributors to the emissions include Tenants. Included also in the discussion are some of the regulation strategies that have been put in place; both presently and in the future to avert the issues pertaining Port emissions.

This paper follows the format of a report with the main sections including introduction, analysis of literature, methodology, analysis of the results and making relevant recommendations that will aid in mitigating the emissions. Notably, these major topics cover various subtopics to assist in a detailed synthesis of the study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTForemost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my Parents Dr. Mohsen Khademi and Ms. Sedigheh Doroudchi for giving birth to me in the first place and supporting me spiritually throughout my life, for their patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. Their guidance helped me in all the time of my life and also in writing this paper. I cannot imagine having a better mentor than them, ever.

I would also like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Fengxiang Qiao, for his guidance and relaxed, thoughtful insight. I want to thank him for his unflagging encouragement and serving as a role model to me as a junior member of academia. He has been a strong and supportive adviser throughout my graduate school career; he has always given me great freedom to pursue independent work.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Today, mobile source port emissions have become quite common, which is why these factors are impacting the Ozone layer. As such many organizations have realized the problem posed by this situation, which is why many are focusing on research of how to improve it. In the ports, the main source of pollution is as a result of mobile and stationary source emissions. Mobile source port emissions are generated by marine vessels and by land-based sources at ports. Marine emissions come primarily from diesel engines operating on ocean-going vessels (OGVs), tugs and tows, dredges, and other vessels operating within a port area. Land-based emission sources include cargo handling equipment (CHE) such as terminal tractors, cranes, container handlers, and forklifts, as well as heavy duty trucks and locomotives operating within a port area. These land-based sources also are likely to have diesel engines. Diesel emissions of concern include Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), and Hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and toxics. Stationary emission sources at ports also need to be counted in total port emissions.

It is important to consider some of the measures that have been put in place to mitigate the issue of port emissions. While the world has majorly focused on employing strategies that aim at reducing pollution, some of the most important factors to put into considerations include employing technology in the emissions. Notably, recent research and development have seen the introduction of machines and systems that not only ensure efficiency in operation but also ensuring the emissions are within the stipulated levels. The government and other regulatory bodies have been on the forefront to reduce these emissions through laws and policies that govern organizations. It is, therefore, imperative to analytically study the relevance of Ports in contributing to the emissions while considering some of the milestones made to address the issue. Still, on port emissions, it is important to note that as the world shifts towards a more sustainable future, it will be mandatory to integrate the aspect of research and development in Ports operation. According to EPA, the issue of port emissions is dire and requires urgent intervention. Other agencies such as ENVIRON suggest that if something is not done, there are more effects expected in the future which will include health and to the environment. With this regard, more research in this realm needs to be done to understand not only the causes of the emissions but also the basis of possible interventions.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

As indicated in the previous chapter, the focus of most researchers whose area of interests is pollution is slowly turning towards port emission. Therefore, to ensure a complete understanding of the nature of this research, a comprehensive review of literature is recommended. As such, this chapter will feature a summary of the existing efforts and milestones achieved in the various studies conducted. Hence, the existing research on port emissions will be synthesized. This section will feature two types of review efforts; 1) The reviews and summaries from authoritative agencies and research organizations such as the EPA will be presented. 2) The reviews conducted by individual researchers will be obtained to give more details on specific research topics.

Summary and Review Efforts from EPA

Estimating emissions generally involves applying emission factors to measures of port activity. Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers only limited guidance regarding the development of port emission inventories, and small and mid-size ports do not have extensive resources to devote to inventory development. As a consequence, many current emission inventories suffer from poor quantification of port activity and use of outdated emission factors.

The weakest link noted in deep sea vessel emission inventories is noted in the emission factors for ship engines with a displacement of 30 liters per cylinder. However, as EPA (2011) notes, the emission factors are still being derived from limited data due to the unavailability of effective inventories. The emission test for the ocean going vessels is often an expensive and complicated un...

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