Evaluation of learning remains an important aspect in the teaching-learning field. This is there are much investment and various concern that is attached to it. The vast number of the stakeholders involved such as the government that is the major stakeholder, parents and teachers inclusive would want to know how much has been achieved vis-a-vis the investment in Education. The grading practices used in education have raised many controversies from both the educationists and the scholars on which criteria should be used. Most have however agreed that grading is worth and important. This is because it necessitates moving to another grade and placements in various fields. Despite, the consensus on grading the question that still has aroused argument is, what should be the basis of grading? Should it be wholly based on paper-pen work? Can this serve as the yardstick for measuring the students ability? This paper, therefore, is majorly a discussion on the various grading practices used and its evaluation together with the assessment of the English teaching techniques.
Language as a communication tool has a major role to each and every individual in the society. Through the use of language, ideas are given meanings that enable understanding among people. The childs language development occurs simultaneously with his or herself identification alongside the cordial relation with others. The research conducted by the (NCF, 2005) shows that most children get admitted to schools when their language have already established. This makes them have the ability to acquire new languages and other knowledge being taught in school. Given all the subjects taught in school, language remains fundamental to all of them. This is because it allows for the understanding of the nearly all the areas of knowledge. Most scholars agree that the foundation of language is established by the primary education. Primary education forms the major elements of language skills like listening, speaking and writing. With the well-lain foundation in language, a student can easily grasp some other ideas based on other subjects. India, for example, is known to be admitting children in school who can communicate in at least two languages (NCF, 2005). Students who are gifted with the multilingualism ability are known to be bright and can learn other foreign languages with ease. Therefore for the beneficiary of teacher they need to put the following into account:
All the language spoken are naturally different, and mistakes are prone to be made by children during their learning stages.
All children have the linguistic ability all they need is the support and time for them to develop fully.
Peer learning is common among children
For the better learning of language among children, they should get exposed to an environment where there is much use of language
Various children activities that should be promoted can be obtained from the source book. The activities for children range from the observation, interviewing, analysis and group discussions. This can be done through the employment of talk, assessment of the children through the individuals work and giving feedback, setting up newspapers and posters on the walls and choosing the relevant materials for children through the critic of the available materials. This approach is necessary for it is not only beneficiary for the child, but also for the teacher and the system. The major aim of the initiative is empowering the teacher to develop a large record enriched from the experience she or he has. (Grant, 1987)
In teaching English as a language, the approach is given to the class one or the level one (I) and two (II) should be dominated by the oral skills. For the level two (II) which comprises the class, three, four and five the method to be used include center more on reading, writing and communication skills apart from the providing skills on oral-aural. That is purely for the class one.
The term assessment according to the Advanced Learners Dictionary means, "the process of making a judgment or forming an opinion after considering something or someone carefully." However in teaching it involves in teaching learning context it involves procedural monitoring of the students progress through gathering information about them. Evaluation can be defined as thinking carefully about something before making a judgment about its value, importance or quality. Evaluation of the teaching- learning context is a process that involves the assessment of learners acquisition of the language skills and the ability to apply it daily life through communication alongside demonstrating an appreciation towards the acquired skills. This is important in having an insight in the improvement made by the student or the otherwise who is reflected in the feedback and which in turn will allow for the necessary intervention. When assessing skills in language, it is essential that the goals and the objectives of the syllabus should be revealed. Communication aspect in language remains a key element in education. (Andrew, 1980)
Learners evaluation of language involves the fundamentals of the language and the proficiency of the language. This must, therefore, be mirrored when evaluating the learners.
In most cases, the process of assessment has been majorly associated with giving grades. This should not be the case. The process should not only be based on assigning grades but also working towards the enhancement of the result.
The major assessment tool in learning has been the examination. It has a major focus on testing the skills acquired during learning. However, the case has been that it only tests using a single skill of writing which may require more than one skill. For a case in a moment, for reading, the writing skill is very crucial. Therefore assessment done needs to corporate the four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. (Andrew, 1980)
The assessment done should be able to show how the learners can be able to apply the language acquired. Various techniques must be used to know the entry behavior of the learners, lay down goals, examine the students progress and to give back the results for their assessment.
Assessment being a continuous process in learning requires records for monitoring the students insight into the language, skills, attitude and the strategies. This needs to be done in consideration of the needs of the students before, during and after the lessons. (Andrew 1980)
The assessment rationale for the entire period of learning would be as follows:
To ascertain the needs and the knowledge acquired previously
To determine the entry behavior of the students
To decide on the most suitable plan to use
To establish students acquisition of the knowledge
points both the strengths and the weaknesses of the learners
To find out the learners ability to communicate
To judge the capability of the students in doing and finishing the assigned work
To point out the acquired knowledge by the learners
To verify the worth of what the students have learned
To test the efficacy of the learning activities in correlation with the set goals and the objectives
To replicate on the lesson taught. (Cathy, 1997)
The language acquisition is not merely for the sake. The learner should be in a position to use it both in a creative and a critical way. In finding out if the students have learned the effective use of language, there is need to choose the most appropriate assessment technique. This will be able to assist in recording students abilities. (NCF, 2005)
In the assessment of the students, the syllabus objectives are also important just like the previously mentioned techniques. Nevertheless, written tests may not be the most appropriate and effective way of assessment of assessment. There is rather the need to pool it with the teacher.
Comments and appraisal of the work of the student during the entire academic year. These may include group work, oral and class presentation and written assignments. The research carried out from the past reveals that the students progress record is demonstrated by developing gradually from the beginning and improves as the year progresses up to the end.
The Concepts of Assessment and Evaluation of languages
NCF, 2005 holds that the main goals of education can only be realized if the teacher makes prior preparation for the anticipated teaching course. The preparation made should involve both the assessment and the evaluation parameters alongside the paraphernalia that are necessary.
Apart from evaluating the worth of the students performance, there is a need for the teacher to use a range of measures to determine students performance in learning by collecting, organizing, analyzing and interpretation of data. (Andrew 1980)
The Salient Ideas in Language Evaluation
There are various facts that should be considered in the evaluation of language: (Andrew, 1980) the evaluation of language should be based on the communicative skills but not achievement. Secondly, assessment of language should frequently be done by use of tests and examination. Thirdly report card can serve purposely to show how the student has progressed for the entire period of learning. Lastly, comprehensive assessment can be preferably done through continuous maintenance a daily record
3. Teaching of English
English is globally spoken and in most countries as the second language. India, for instance, is a multilingual country where English is taught for both proficiency and literacy purpose. The English curriculum is known to be vastly incorporating language skills, communication skills, and literature. One of the most important skill in that has been widely used is discrete Point and Integrative Skill testing.
Discrete Point and Integrative Skill Testing:
The discrete point is a skill used for the analysis of a character that can only be used for measuring only one type of skill at a time. It employs the assumption that the bits of language are equivalent to the knowledge of the language. The skill is majorly used in testing the difference in sound pattern. For instance;
Seat - sit
Bit - beat
Sit - seat
A student in a language class needs to demonstrate the difference in the sound produced.
An Integrative test measure, on the other hand, tests on the universal skills. It tries to find out the learners ability to employ the language bits simultaneously in daily life. An integrative test may assess listening, reading, writing and speaking separately, but need not necessarily assess all the listed aspects together. Oral interviews are a typical example of an integrative test involving more than one skill. The integrative skill entails the testing of all the language skills. This will include listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Translation is in the current world trend that is gaining ground in its multipurpose use. Translation requires a multilingual audience so as to enhance communication among people. (NCF, 2005). In cases where listeners can understand at least two languages, a bilingual type of strategy can be used a tool for testing. This is Communicative testing.
Linguistic competence is the mastery of the facts about rules of a language. While on the other hand communicative competence can be defined as being informed about the language regulations in use.
Since time immemorial, linguistic skills has been upheld and preferred to the communicative skills. This had been the case due to the desirable ability to have mastery and ability to command the language. However in the recent past, the communicative skills are gaining more ground because of it is majo...
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