Across the world, different crimes are committed demanding the need for a thorough investigation to retrieve the original crime perpetrators and bring them to justice. Unlike crimes where the criminal is caught in the act, offenses with a fled suspect and in hiding call for an extra effort from law enforcer to identify the prime suspect and this call for the establishment of an investigation. Investigation process can be long and tricky to achieve set objectives, however, if the right techniques are applied the investigators grow closer to the truth (Carter & Carter, 2016). According to Chamelin, Territo & Taylor (2012), different crime call for different investigation tactic and it is, therefore, necessary for the instigators to understand the crime scene before beginning to investigate. In this essay, i will examine a homicide crime case and provide the most suitable investigation technique to apply in solving the crime and possible challenges encountered.
On the busy streets of New York, a crime is committed, and the offense is announced as a double homicide. Before the crime occurred, two people are seen arguing before one retrieved a gun and shot the other. Unfortunately, the bullets landed on another passerby not involved in the argument killing two people. On realization of the damage done, the criminal flees the scene, leaving two people dead. The double homicide case call for the crime and justice department to launch an investigation that will help find the prime suspect in the murder of two people and risking the lives of many others. The streets are expected to be safe, and when such a threat is reported, then action needs to be taken. On arriving at the scene, police and police investigator begin by collecting information from the onlooker who majority turn out to be primary witnesses in the case.
The investigator's primary purpose is to get down to work and successfully identify the suspect who is fled. To do this, the investigator can apply different search techniques'. In this case, the most crucial asset the investigators have is the presence of eyewitnesses. On arrival to the scene, the investigators close the view to prevent any tampering of the evidence, and at the same time, they take data from the onlookers. They also take pictures of the scene and surrounding vicinity. The photos are considered as a way of recording detailed information that may not be traced during evidence collocation by any other means (Carter & Carter, 2016). The investigators are also bond to work collaboratively with the forensic department who collect gun residues and DNA evidence probably left on the scene. Such data collected can be resourceful throughout the investigation (Fisher & Fisher, 2012). Having gathered as much evidence from the scene, the investigator head further to tracing the fled suspected.
Homicide crime investigation Techniques
Since the crime is a homicide that occurred on the street, use of surveillance techniques is the most resourceful technique. Surveillance technique is board and has a different tactic to collect data. Surveillance techniques include the use of electronic sources, interviews, observation and also us of the photograph (Fisher & Fisher, 2012). Amongst the different surveillance tactic, the use of electronic surveillance is the most resourceful. When investigator arrives at the scene, they observe and take pictures of the stage and around the vicinity. In the streets of New York, surveillance came are fit for most businesses and on the road. Around the scene perimeter, it will be necessary for the investigator to identify the number of monitoring cameras around and possibly retrieve all the camera recordings of the day. Use of the surveillance camera can turn out quite resourceful, more than any other form of investigation techniques as the recording of the crime are likely to be retrieved as they occur reducing excess pressure on the investigation (Carter & Carter, 2016).
During Investigations, investigators must retrieve multiple cameras to acquire a better angle of the incidence. Some criminals are aware of the camera surveillance around, and they are potentially likely to hind their faces from the camera when perpetrating the crime. Retrieving multiple cameras gives the investigators better chances in identify the front of the perpetrator batter, minimizing possible speculation. Although the perpetrator may hide his or her faces from the camera around the crime scene, often there are cameras around, that capture the suspect before the crime when he or she is not too cautious. Another electronic media that can be used to back up the surveillance techniques is onlooker's mobile devices. Today every person own smartphone and people are ford of taking videos of vents as they occur. In the midst of the crowd gathered, there are high chances today of a person having taken the pictures or video of the action. Retrieving such video from the public can be tricky since many people fear for their life. For onlookers to release such evidence, it is essential for proper guidelines to be applied and witness privacy maintained (Chamelin, Territo & Taylor, 2012). Also, it is necessary to ensure they remain anonymous as much as possible. In case investigators fail to assure anonymity, most likely the witness might withhold and delete the information.
Surveillance can also be accompanied by a photograph, professional investigator observation, and interviews. In most cases, the criminal may be around the scene, and when police arrive, they pretend to be among the onlookers. Investigators on the scene using professional observation knowledge can identify possible onlookers' suspicious behavior, and with the help of other investigators around, they can communicate to follow the suspects potentially identified at the scene seen based on their dubious practices projected. By following the suspect in silence, the investigator may retrieve the weapons used during the crime and probably the possession acquired related to the murder can be used in convicting the suspected of murder in court (Chamelin, Territo & Taylor, 2012).
Interviewing the people around can also turn fruitful to an investigation as there is information provided that can be used to capture the victim. During the interview, the possible question asked to people include of what cloth the suspect wore, the height of the victim, age and potentially which direction the victim took off. Such details are important as it can be used by spy investigators to retrieve the suspect. During the interview, some onlookers may have seen the car the suspect was driving and probably the license numbers. In an investigation any detail is essential, and nothing is assumed (Fisher & Fisher, 2012).
Challenges facing surveillance techniques
Although surveillance as an investigation technique has proven more fruitful in convicting suspect than any other method, multiple challenges may derail the effectiveness of the approach. Inadequate training is a crucial problem, although quite useful, some investigator may lack the informed instruction on how to conduct successful surveillance and its different technique. For example, many investigators may require knowledge on how to apply the observation technique. Therefore, often they are likely to fail to identify a suspect in the midst of the onlooker crowd. Some investigators may lack the knowledge to analyze data collected during surveillance, and they may miss out on significant leads. Also, surveillance strategy requires strict authorization at a time, and any of the evidence provided no matter how good can be ruled out if right measures were not adhered (Carter & Carter, 2016). In instances where spy investigators follow the suspected in secret and decide to us surveillance camera on the suspect home, which is prohibited, data retrieved that is a lead through such a strategy need to be well manipulated not to appear vaguely extracted, minimizing questions of how it was acquired. In this case, it is therefore, necessary for the investigator carrying out the task to be highly specialized.
Technical resources shortage is another problem. In a surveillance approach, the investigators do not only need proper training, but they also require good technological material to use. Videos and cameras used to take photographs of the crime vicinity need to be high-tech and the surveillance video to use when following the suspect need to be modern. The investigation department has over the years lacked the best resources for the work, and as a result, data collected lacks at a time to be of a standard for evidence use. At times suspects have has better high-tech technology surveillance than the police and they often know the police move before implementation. Such suspect knowledge can make the investigators work fruitless (Ioannou & Hammond, 2015). The department, therefore, needs to upgrade their surveillance techniques by enhancing the technology they apply for communication and data transfer.
Legal provisions are another challenge hindering the success of surveillance investigation techniques. In every state, there are statutory provisions that state the period surveillance on a suspect should take. Some county the surveillance periods is too shot, and there is not enough time given to finish an investigation exhaustively. Also, surveillance is hindered by the policy that demands every person privacy be upheld (Geberth & Bagerth, 1996). In case a poorly trained person is given the work to survey a suspect, and the suspect recognizes they are under watch and their privacy violated, then they can file a case against the investigator, and the investigator may be forced to withdraw further investigation. Such laws cannot be dismissed but skilled professionals who can do the survey in confidence as possible need to be deployed to the task.
Witness and witness protection technique
In the homicide case, which happened broadly on the street, particular persons during the interview tell of having seen two people arguing, of which they identify one to be the homicide victim. Presence of an eyewitness is a positive for any investigation as they can act as informants. Eyewitnesses can tell what they say, and how it happened. They are also able to give details about the suspect clothing, age among other things. In a crime such as one in the study, eyewitnesses find it difficult to talk out as they fear for their life (Innes, 2003). Since no one is aware of the event that transpired before the crime, and in most instances, the homicide might be a part of an organized crime witness protection need to be introduced. According to Innes (2003), the united nation stated that to combat corruption that prevails in the incidence of crime it is necessary for the state to oblige by providing an appropriate measure for witness protection without prejudice. When eyewitnesses are identified, it is essential to produce an agreement that is signed by both the witness and the investigation department, pledging to offer total protection, which may include witness relocation. The witness protection agreement should not be used as a reward for information how the entire process needs to be based on the principles of neutrality.
In this case, the witness of the New York street double homicide needs to be assigned each a different investigator. However, the handing over the witness to the investor must happen after they have read, agreed and signed the witness protection forms. What the eyewitnesses in this case have already identified is one of the dead victim and the suspect in fleeing is yet to be determined. Following the investigation done and data collected...
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