2.5.2. Concepts of self-esteem
According to Jennifer Campbell (1990), studies on self-esteem have various concepts that are discussed briefly as follows:
· The idea of psychodynamic
This approach focuses on effectiveness, whereby an individual's self-esteem is based on qualification and efficacy. There is also the conviction that self-esteem and accomplishment, results to earning respect.
· The sociological concepts
Campbell (1990) argues that social elements have a healthy relationship to self-esteem. Therefore, she integrated both mental processes and affective in assessing the worth of self. This theory affirms that an individual who gets analysed the need to establish principles and attitudes that contain social features and then make a comparison between the person and such values (Campbell, 1990).
· Behavioural theory perception
According to Coopersmith (1967), this concept mirrors the acceptance and denial opinions and shows the degree to which a learner had to him/herself. Also, this approach highlights that there is a link between emotions such as apprehension and extreme despondency and self-esteem. However, Coopersmith demonstrates that an individual can acquire self-esteem or lose it by learning on how to do it. Consequently, his concept was an expression of two elements of proficiency and accomplishment, and that which he considered as important parts of self-esteem.
2.5.3. How to promote self-esteem
From their research, Bruno and Njoku (2014) argue that teachers have a significant role in developing self-esteem, and that means that, the learning climate in schools should be favourable to nurture growth for self-esteem and hence, learners' success levels and self-possession increases. The researcher also understands that success is not measured regarding techniques or materials but rather the interactions between students in the classroom ( Bruno and Njoku, 2014). Ideally, by the teachers establishing a beneficial learning platform, they considerably, enhance the unique ways that students have to express their freedom and support.
As a fundamental factor to a fulfillment of learners' goals, self-esteem also enables students to have a high regard of their personality in a classroom, and therefore, encourage them to study harder and score with high points. Rosa (2000) shows that learners with an increased global self-esteem have a strong belief and conviction about themselves as important and valuable individuals who have the capability to learn a second language. Conversely, students that lack the feeling of being able to learn a new language are characterised to have reduced global-self-esteem (Feng, 2015). Therefore, students with low academic achievement usually manifest diminished global self-esteem, and this also means that the student may as well fail school eventually. A strong language gain is gained through high levels of self-esteem, and it is also true that low self-esteem is linked to less effectiveness when learning the language (Rosa, 2000).
2.5.4. Research on self-esteem and learning
The affect for learning has been a great inducer in learning, and its significance is potential for engagement and sustenance of a deep interest in learning matters. Therefore, contributes to active learning, and more so essential to learners. According to Fernando Rubio (2007) the structure of affect in studying a language and teaching, there are two components of consideration, these includes, internal attributes that refer to the learners' personality, and the relational aspects that are concerned with students and instructors as members in a social situation. Within the learner's internal issues, the core representation one creates is about oneself or rather self-concept (Rubio, 2007). However, on assessment of the positive or negative self-aspects, requires the play of our self-esteem. Many researchers on communication have resulted that the attitudes a learner has on him/herself have a significant effect on the processes of behaviour, psychological, assessments and perception.
In language education, the focus on self-esteem assists the students to channel their energy, which in most cases were diverted from study tasks and concentrate on nonconstructive personal beliefs, formerly to a state appropriate for language gain. Nevertheless, it is fundamental to address explicitly that tasks with self-esteem are free from the unjustified acknowledgement, that may cause wrong prediction as well as an incorrect perception of real life matters (Rubio, 2007). Indeed, the outcome of skillfulness is confidence. Therefore, the focus on the self-esteem of the learner in a language classroom is not established an untrue faith about of an active state to substitute the negative. But comparatively, the subject matter is ensuring that learners have the techniques to excel in the learning second language and parallel with minimising any incorrect beliefs about the students' worth or skills, that may prevent them from realising their full potential. Self-esteem in learning advocates for competence and that learner should be able to feel they are skilful. On the same note, teachers cannot guide learners to ignore the obstacles during language learning, because the existence of these challenges make students adjust and develop ways to overcome.
In their research, William and Burden (1997) learners empowerment can elevate degrees of self-esteem and also improve reading skills. They propose that better empowerment techniques would be self-correcting and self-evaluation skills. For instance, personal correction of mistakes in learning enables them to evaluate themselves. Nevertheless, the level of self-esteem is proposed to be related to possession of a second language, particularly when it involves language skills like reading and writing, and whereby there has been positive correspondence to between these skills and self-esteem. Furthermore, as discussed above in the review, components such as apprehension, taking risks among others, are variables that determine effectiveness and success of learning (Rubio, 2007). Therefore, it is important that teachers develop methods that will improve the learners' self-esteem as an element of pedagogical theory, and this framework can be facilitated through teachers instilling abilities of self-correcting and self-observation. Consequently, learners will have the potential to self-teach and confidence in learning.
2.6. Learner autonomy and VLS
It is evident that autonomy in vocabulary learning is necessary. According to Tuan (2011), the study of lexical items is indeed fundamental in the acquisition of English language. It is thus, improbable for a learner to interact effectively when there is the absence of vocabulary. Besides, it is highly unlikely that a student would be able to acquire all necessary new words while in school, and therefore, he/she is must invent ways to gain more vocabulary. In this regard, Tuna (2011) suggests that learner autonomy is now a huge benefit for learners of vocabulary just because it ensures that the student has the following privileges:
1. Autonomous studies improve the student's motivation and increase effectiveness in learning vocabulary.
2. Learner autonomy creates adequate opportunities to the students regarding English interaction as a foreign language.
3. The personal desires of the learner are fully met thanks to learner autonomy
4. Learner autonomy has a long-term affective ability
5. The acceptance of the learner to engage in active learning is reinforced by learner autonomy.
6. Learner autonomy assists the learner in developing the general skills needed for lasting vocabulary learning.
Therefore, Tuan (2011) concludes that when students achieve autonomy in vocabulary learning, it means that they will benefit from a long-term learning capacity and character of independent decision making as well as the study that will guarantee success in the classroom.
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