1. The patient’s diagnosis, description on epidemiology and pathophysiology of the disease.
The patient was diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Statistics state Diabetes Mellitus type 2 has escalated, mostly manifested in the United States of America. About 11% of the population suffers from the Diabetes Mellitus. About 35% are in the pre-diabetic stage of the disease without being aware. It is prevalent in the population aged twenty years and over (Hompesch et.al, 2015). The Diabetes Mellitus type 2 has the worst glycemic control and the more severe complications. Obesity is among those leading predisposing factor to the Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Obesity is the tendency to have excessive intake than the expenditure of energy in the body. For instance, about 68% of the total population in the United States of America are either obese or overweight (Hompesch et.al, 2015). Childhood obesity is alarming in the USA and has increased to almost 17%. Due to that, there has been a prospected reduction in life expectancy for the current children.
Metabolic Syndrome is also on the rise in the society. For example, about 25% have the effect of it in the United States of America. These are individuals suffering from the glucose intolerance which has consequently led to the risk of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and damage to smaller blood vessels (Hompesch et.al, 2015).
Pathophysiology of the disease.
Diabetes type 2 is due to by varying degrees of insulin resistance. Another cause is Beta-cell and alpha-cell dysfunction. Consequently, Beta-cells and Alpha cells malfunction tend to hinder effective secretion of insulin and glucagon, hence result in an increased output of the glucose from the liver without control by insulin or glucagon. The malfunction in the liver causes glucose release upon uptake or no uptake of any glucose. Failure to metabolize glucose leads to its accumulation in blood and is frequently filtered through the kidney. For instance; loss of the first phase or pulsating secretion of the insulin by the Beta cells upon intake of glucose delays glucose metabolism. On the other hand, there can be dysregulation of the secretion of glucagon by the Alpha cells to reduce the excess glucose into glucagon. High glucose levels lead to chronic complications which may lead to narrowing blood vessels. Consequently, it causes cardiovascular effects, stroke, hypertension, and kidney complications due to the accumulation of ketones in the blood (Forbes & Cooper, 2013). Sometimes, failure to metabolize glucose makes the cells to burn fat, and at the same time, there is a significant loss of glucose, thus, considerable loss in weight over a short period.
2. Compare the patient’s disease to Diabetes mellitus type 1.
Treatment of Diabetes depends on its level and type. Both Diabetes type2 and Diabetes type 1 have different intensity of complications and the order or modes of treatment (Stoppler, 2016). For instance, Diabetes type 1 starts treatment by insulin, diabetic foods, and exercises, whereas, Diabetes type 2 start with a reduction in body weights, type 2 diabetic diets and finally handling exercises (Stoppler, 2016). Therefore, it shows that Diabetes type 2 can significantly be avoided by churning body weights as possible and exercises while type 1 is not preventable. Diabetes type 1 symptoms do manifest in childhood and young adults, while in type 2 symptoms mainly shows up in adulthood although currently there is a tendency of manifestation at any age. Mostly, Diabetes type 1 manifests both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, while in Diabetes type 2, high blood sugar is more prevalent. Diabetes type 1 accounts for almost 5-10 percent out of 100 percent of the diabetic population, while type 2 accounts for 90-95 percent of the diabetic population (Stoppler, 2016).
3. What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? Define Hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia is an acute complication as a result of diabetes characterized by high levels of blood sugar due to the failure of its uptake by the cells. Hyperglycemia manifests symptoms until the accumulation of sugar in the blood up to a level 200mg/dl and above. The seriousness of the symptoms depends on the degree of the accumulated sugar in the blood. Early prevention can counter the complication which includes; frequent urination due to continued filtration of glucose molecules in the kidney's capsule and blockage by ketones present in the kidneys. Weakness or fatigue in the body since there is less intake of glucose by the cells to be metabolized (Inzucchi et.al, 2015). Increased thirst and coma can be due to excessive loss of glucose through urine that the body cannot use due to insulin resistance to the body. Others include fruity smell in a breath, nausea and vomiting, headaches, blurred vision, and abdominal pains among others.
4. The long-term risks of uncontrolled hyperglycemia.
Failure to counter hyperglycemia may lead to chronic complications associated with blood vessels that can result in damage to feet, kidney, eyes, nerves, and heart. In the eyes it can cause cataracts that lead to coagulation of a clear lens, hence, causing blindness. Another is kidney failure that can be due to accumulation of ketones and overwork due to frequent filtration. Inflammation or amputation in the feet due to reduced blood flow as a result of a defect in the nervous system. Skin infections due to frequent attack by fungi, bacteria, and failure to heal wounds. Cardiovascular diseases are also prevalent since large deposit of glucose and inability to metabolize fat due to insulin resistance clogs the blood vessels. Moreover, accumulation of fats causes obesity. Collectively, the heart is overworked and cause heart failure, or stroke as a result of bursting blood vessels in the brain, hence, causing death (Inzucchi et.al, 2015).
5. Capillary blood glucose monitoring
Capillary blood glucose monitoring aids a diabetic individual in the development of a blood glucose profile that can be helpful in planning treatment by the doctors. The access to the blood sugar levels in the body also helps the diabetes patients to determine adjustments to diets, activities, as well as some insulin to inject (Clinic, 2015). Monitoring also helps acquire education and empowerment regarding the glycemic controls. That would aid in recognition of both severe conditions of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, hence, take the necessary precautions.
The only problem of capillary blood glucose monitoring is that it does not give an immediate result after monitoring (Clinic, 2015). Since it is one of the preferred means at home, it can further complicate the condition due to delays upon waiting for the actual level of glucose to determine the quantity of insulin to be injected or regulate the diet. Moreover, not all testing devices are under insurance cover. That is a disadvantage since the monitors and sensor ought to be changed in a span of 6 months to 2 years which may delay the extent of time of replacement (Clinic, 2015)
6. The impact of glucose controls upon frequent blood glucose measurement.
Frequent monitoring of glucose may lead to alteration or shift the conditions to the extremes either through adjustment by insulin injections coupled with diet treatment. That may be due to delayed result of the actual blood sugar levels in the blood. Frequent measurement leads to frequent treatment by insulin and diet. As a result, the stability of the sugar levels to the required amount becomes hard to attain (Clinic, 2015).
7. What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia is an acute complication caused by extremely low blood sugar level usually 70mg/dl. It can be due to taking too small carbohydrate foods or skipping the meal, drinking alcohols or preferring a type of medication. Some of the symptoms include shakiness, irregular heartbeat, confusion, hunger and nausea, and sleepiness. Failure to address the issue early can cause serious complications such as unconsciousness and death may also result (Inzucchi et.al, 2015).
8. Treatments of hypoglycemia.
A person suffering hypoglycemia needs to consume 15-16 grams of glucose tablets when the condition occurs and after that re-check the sugar level. The patient can take a small snack if the main meal is after some couple of hour. I case the condition worsen the patient is supposed to intervene the doctor (Inzucchi et.al, 2015).
9. Recommendation on any lifestyle changes to the patient
The patient suffering hypoglycemia is supposed to adapt a culture of drinking fruit juices always or soda to keep on stabilizing the sugar level. The patient needs the discipline of having the injection kit and keep glucose tablets at hand to curb the extreme conditions that may lead to unconsciousness or death.
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