Vocational Education in China - Paper Example

Published: 2023-11-14
Vocational Education in China - Paper Example
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Employment Asia Professional development Special education
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1502 words
13 min read

The overriding model in the economics of education that fuels investments and the establishment of vocational education and training is the capital theory. The theory suggests that education and training are investments that make people more productive, as they can attain employment and acquire high earnings (Pedro et al, 2010). Hence vocational education and training aim to develop and nurture talent and skills that would enable an individual to secure employment and attain better pay.

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In China, though enrollment in universities is at a record high, companies are reducing the number of hiring of university graduates as there is an acute mismatch in skills (China's push to expand vocational education, 2019) and the importance of vocational education and training.

Research Questions

  1. What is the future learning experience of undergraduate students?
  2. What are the future job requirements for college and university student graduates?
  3. What is the impact of vocational education on undergraduate programs?
  4. Research Goals
  5. To find out the influence of vocational education on the economy.
  6. To find out the impact of changes in job requirements on university graduates.
  7. To find out the effect of vocational education in tertiary education.

Literature Review

Chinese education, especially technical and vocational education, and training currently undergo some major extensive reforms as vocational education is widely viewed as the key to solving future problems. The elementary target of vocational education is to nurture skilled talents with high-quality abilities in different levels and categories.

During the economic transformation period, the reforms arising from the educational organization and arrangement of the education system resulted in a new model of the education group. The new model is trademarked with Chinese characteristics and is in sync with the country's essential condition. In its inception, the model developed on two fronts, each with its own separate and divergent channels; one was led by a civilian-running educational group and the other by the state-running group (Bunning et al, n.d.). The group running model works under the principle of developing skilled vocational talents that are market-oriented, employment-targeted, quality-based, and competent specialized.

The group running vocational education and training model breaks regional barriers by encouraging cooperation in establishing vocational chain groups across national borders, regions, industries, cities, and towns (Bunning et al, n.d.). In China, the region's economies develop unevenly with considerable differences in urban and rural development accompanied by cultural diversity. Hence, regional combination and vocational education growth aid in spreading and extending advanced cultures from the highly developed regions to the low developed areas (Bunning et al, n.d.).

The Chinese technical vocational and training model is integrated into the three stages of education. TVET is first introduced in the secondary education level to aid in operations-oriented skilled labor training and orientation. Second, TVET education is advanced in the colleges and universities level to provide more advanced skills in the demanding sectors of manufacturing, management, services, and construction. Finally, TVET is offered through in-service training by education institutions and companies, to hone the already acquired skills and capabilities further, to meet the existing labor market requirements (Woldetsadik, 2018).

The Chinese government visualizes developing a world-class vocational educational model, by providing financial and technical assistance to various colleges and universities to function as prototypes for technical vocational education and training reforms and innovation (Woldetsadik, 2018). The model aims to encourage vocational training for all, including the current workers, degree students, military personnel, laid-off workers, and rural migrant workers.The new model is dubbed the 1+X system and piloted in over ten provinces in colleges and universities. The hybrid model is being implemented in universities and colleges that seek to combine academic and vocational education to curtailing graduate employability problems (Ross, 2019). With the system students will graduate with academic degrees and vocational certificates, the system will result in the colleges and universities to shift their programs to a more applied focus based programs (Ross, 2019). Vocational education and training will be offered in colleges and universities to counter the perception that vocational education is inferior to university study.

Significance of the Study

Across the globe, post-secondary education is increasingly projected to further the immediate employment needs of graduates and fill the economies' skills gap. The Chinese government is at the forefront in filling the holes as the state council announced a US $15 billion funding that will be set aside expressly for the expansion of vocational skills training in the post-secondary scheme (China's push to expand vocational education, 2019). The study aims at developing and emphasizing the need for the educational sector to integrate vocational education training in the colleges and universities, where graduates apart from coming out with degrees and diplomas in the various sectors of education, they will also possess vocational certificates (China's push to expand vocational education, 2019).

Research Methodology

The chapter on study techniques will be to focus on the research methods employed to try and answer the study question of the research. The chapter will describe the research approach, procedure, and design used to achieve the study's objectives. The research will employ qualitative methods of obtaining data, such as the use of semi-structured interviews and a survey of secondary data.

Semi-structured Interviews

Semi-structured interviews are suitable for the study since it offers flexibility. The researcher can change the order of questions and even eliminate problems that may seem redundant or depending on the individual respondent. Semi-structured interviews allow for items to be prepared ahead of the actual day of study and enable respondents to express their views in their way. The interview participants will include various experts, professionals, and students in colleges, universities, and vocational educational training institutions.

On average, the interview will take 15 to 20 minutes as with a more extended interview. It has the potential of creating monotony and wearing down of the respondents, thus affecting the way and manner of giving responses. An audio recording will be used as it allows for concentration on the interview and building a good rapport. Tape recording also will allow for better reference as the exact words can be replayed. Note-taking will also be taken for modification as reflective memos.

Use of Secondary Data

The use of secondary data analysis will involve the use of print or electronically stored information. The use of secondary data will be suitable for the study since the research will include studying the historical development of vocational training in various parts of the world with a special focus on China (Foley, 2018).

Ethical Consideration

Ethics may be defined as techniques that direct one on how to behave and scrutinize a problematic state, complications, and concerns. The majority of people obtain ethics from school, religious institutions, home, or other social gatherings (Resnik, 2015). The research will follow the following ethical consideration;

Violation of Privacy - The information given by the respondent will be safely guarded with care. In safeguarding privacy, the respondents will not mention their names but will be assigned codes for identification and protecting their identity (Lee, 2016).

Harm to the Respondents - In administering the interview, no damage will be caused to any of the respondents be either physically, emotionally, or mentally. The respondents will be given the freedom to choose the location they feel safe and secure to enhance security.

Deception of Respondents - No form of fraud will be used for the respondents who will participate in the study (Skavlid, 2015). All the respondents will have to agree to participate in the course through their own free will. No form of exaggeration will also be used in explaining the aims and objectives of the research.

Consent - All the respondents in the study will participate without any pressure or coercion of any form. The respondents will be given the right information regarding the procedures, risks, benefits, and participation rights. The study's goals and objectives will be handed to the respondents to understand the implications of taking part in the survey (Rose, 2017). Before the day of the interview, they will be presented with a form of consent on which they will sign on their free will if they wished to participate in the study.


Bunning, F., Jing, M., & Yang, S. (n.d.). Initiatives to foster Chinese TVET and TVET Teacher Training. Magdeburg: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation.

China's push to expand vocational education. (2019, July 17). ICEF Monitor. https://monitor.icef.com/2019/07/chinas-push-to-expand-vocational-education/

Foley, B. (2018, March 31). Why you should consider secondary data analysis for your next study. Survey Gizmo. https://www.surveygizmo.com/resources/blog/secondary-data-analysis/amp/

Lee, W. W. (2016). An ethical approach to data privacy protection. ISACA Journal.

Pedro, C., Lorraine, D., & Anna, V. (2010). The economies of vocational education and training. Oxford: Elsevier. http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/48282

Privacy and Confidentiality. (n.d.). UCI Office of Research. https://.research.uci.edu/compliance/human-research-protections/researchers/privacy-and-confidentiality.html

Resnik, D. B. (2015). National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. http://www.niehs.nih.govRose, S. (2017). Informed consent. Office of the protection of research subjects.

Ross, J. (2019, July 11). China Embraces '1+X'. Inside Higher Ed: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/07/11/new-chinese-model-higher-education

Skavlid, S. (2015, November 10). Deception research. Etikkom. https://www.etikkom.no/en/library/introduction/methods-and-approaches/deception-reserach/

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