Virology is a branch of science that focuses on the study of viruses and virus-like agent. In early years, the discipline of virology relied mostly on advances in physical and chemical sciences before they became the biochemical process of cells. Viruses have been negatively viewed as agents accountable for a spread of illness and must be eliminated It may come as a surprise to many to learn that every plant, animal, and protist on earth is infected with a virus. Many new species are being discovered on a daily basis hence not all have been studied, but those that have been examined all yield up new virus yield up. Additionally, every species has its own definite variety of viruses since they occur universally. The most studied host species is humans being, but the question is what this virus are doing to the species that host them (Calisher and Horzinek). However, is evident that have not brought their host into extinction, but as per now, let focus on multiplication viruses multiplication lifecycle and their properties.
The first stage is attachment where the virus attaches itself to the potential host. The virus uses its attachment proteins that specifically target the receptors molecules located on the surface of the cell. The original contact between the host and the virus frequently involves weak electrostatic interaction and this contact is dynamic and reversible. As time goes by, the contacts the interactions become stable as a result of strong contact which sometimes is basically irreversible. During this particular phase, the specificity of the virus is determined for a particular host species. The second stage is penetration, during this process; the virus affects the entry in order to duplicate to facilitate easy passage into the cell. While inside the cell, the virus through a process called wanting loses many of its proteins that build up a particle in order facilitate the genome of the virus available. Usually, the virus does not need to use a lot of its energy in the form of ATP during these first three stages. It is also evidence that a number of viruses combine both entry and uncoating phases into one (Paniker).
After the genome of the virus available, the genome then replicates, transcript the mRNA, and translate it to into protein which is needed in the biosynthesis phase. The ribosome that is produced by the host cell is utilized during the translation process. It is this need for molecules of biosynthesis and requirement for translation machinery that leads to viruses compel intercellular parasites. In order to promote another round of replication, the genomes that have been newly synthesized are utilized as the template. Furthermore, they are also utilized as templates for the additional round of replication and at the same time, as templates for transcription of extra mRNA in intensification process which increment the yield of virus from the cell which is infected. Through the process called assembly, the newly produced genomes then come together with the virus protein that has been fully synthesized to come up progeny virus particles. It is this period that the particle parts way with the host cell in a release phase and then it look out for possible host species to start a new process again. Before the release, the maturation phase takes place which requires this produced particles processed further before they are released for them to become more infectious (Paniker).
Properties of Virus
The assumption is that the lifecycle of a virus that has been described are true for all viruses. This makes it much easier to look at the comparison between the properties of viruses with those of their host cells. To begin with, viruses have their genetic information encoded in a nucleic acid. Another property is that viruses are produced exclusively from its generic material; furthermore, they contain only one of nucleic acid which is RNA or DNA as their genome. This nucleic acid is enclosed in a protein shell, which is perhaps bounded by lipid which contains membrane. Another property is that viruses are inert in extracellular surroundings; they undergo replication only in living cells while during the generic level, where they exist as parasites (Carter & Saunders). Notably, the components of a virus are synthesized on their own and then assembled into more virus particles. Another property of a virus is that the viral nucleic acid is comprised of information essential for programming the cell that has been infected so as to synthesize macromolecules specific virus which are needed for production viral progeny. Virus relies on pre-existing host cell ribosomes for the synthesis of viral protein since they are not able to synthesize ribosomes. This openly distinguishes viruses from all another organism, including Chlamydia which for a number of years have perceived to in-between bacteria and virus. Viruses vary so much and their universes of richness in diversity diverge largely on structure, expression, and organization of replication (Carter &Saunders).
The research paper has focused on virus multiplication lifecycle and their properties. Viruses have been found to cause a number of human illnesses and it is the highest time the individuals who are involved in scientific research to up their game in order to reduce death related disease caused by the virus.
Calisher, Charles H., and M. C. Horzinek. 100 Years of Virology: The Birth and Growth of a Discipline. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. Print.
Carter, John, and Venetia A. Saunders. Virology: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.
Paniker, Ananthanarayan And. Ananthanarayan and Panikers Textbook of Microbiology. Orient Blackswan, 2005. Print.
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