|Type of paper:||Research paper|
|Categories:||Child development Childhood|
As children develop, a positive insight of personality and psychosocial well-being is developed. Over time, they tend to develop self-concept and self-esteem. At that time, these children tend to be a lot comfortable. Child adoption is a rewarding experience regardless of whether the adoptive parents have biological children or not. Every adopted child has a potential to lament the destruction of their biological family, their custom, and culture. However, many of the parents are scrutinized by adopting agencies yet given insufficient information regarding the adopted child in relation to family history or the parenting skills that can assist their children in developing the greatest of emotional connections. Negative early experience for adopted preschoolers may cause emotional, social, health and cognitive development issues. On the other hand, non- adopted children are not an exception as the adopted children are treated better than they are. There is evidence for the within-family variation where there are parents who differ in the relationship with their children (O'Connor et al., 2006) and these variations may differ in regards to the connection attributes and child temperamental and behavioral adjustments (Conger et al., 1994).
Most of the adopted preschoolers experience a complication of their self-image than non-adopted children. It is evident that adoption can take the normal child problems with affection, loss, and self-image as they seek to integrate their birth and adoptive parents. Adopted kids tend to be moved by the adoption throughout their lifetime. They experience poor parental care where after the child's physical activity or mental development may be affected. A parent's exposure to drugs may harm the child since prenatal-alcohol and drug impairments may lead to poor social decisions for the child, poor self-control, and various learning challenges. However, non-adopted kids tend to receive better attention than adopted kids. Adopted children are abused and neglected that may limit their development. Even though the children can catch up with their peers, they may be delayed in development hence, get their emotions negatively affected. Many parenting adopters also have sexual abuse, making their kids grow with inappropriate roles and relationships. On the same note, physical abuse may also affect the way which a child responds to discipline. Some others such as institutionalization, grief and loss, and trauma may also lead to altering of the Childs's, mental, social, or physical growth. Adopted children may, therefore, experience some trauma and have challenges that may complicate their self-image than non-adopted children.
The relationship existing among the adopted and non-adopted kids is that the adopted ones are less aggressive as compared to the non-adopted counterparts (Vandivere et al., 2009). Preschool children of between ages 3 and 5 are limited to the much they can understand regarding adoption. Just as they grow, they may tend to seek information regarding their place in the families and communities they are placed. For this reason, they tend to have strings with their primary caregiver. Toddlers and preschoolers do feel proud after hearing the story of adoption. Most of the children accept what their parents say and the attitude towards which they talk. Even though most of the children exhibit varied experiences, some of them with negative experiences still strive through the stage. For adopted kids in preschool, little is required in relation to special classes and unnecessary toys since they may still be bonded through the daily interactions including singing, talking and touching. As shaped by the experiences of the children, their brains may grow through the influence of positive actions such as talking or negative ones such as maltreatment and institutionalization. Most of the adopted children show strong connections with their caregivers as compared to non-adopted children. They have lesser chances of being neglected by their caregivers hence, lower chances of entering foster care as compared to the adopted children. Once in foster care, the non-adopted children may develop more problems or even experience exacerbation of the existing problems due to the lack of connection to their parents as compared to adopted children. Only instances of cultural differences and varied positions preceding adoption may cause preschoolers be encouraged into foster care.
A research carried out by Loke (2012) noted that adopted children were comparable to non-adopted children in a mean value of notable strengths such as learning in school. The adopted kids were comparable to the non-adopted kids in an instance that 12 out of 13 infrequent character forces would outweigh some findings while 10 of the best-identified forces outweigh among the knowledge. Adopted preschoolers, having spent most of their time in the orphanages would exhibit better adoption resilient and flourishing. Recently, there have been post-adoption resources that are available for adoptive families where the agencies are becoming aware of the importance of communicating critical information regarding a child's history and the presumed cognitive, behavior and connection issues. Parenting of an adopted child in preschool is similar to just parenting any other preschooler. It has been noted that humor and kindness were most constant and highly associated with a particular time. Adopted children, however, show more of the humorous and kindness characters and continues to exhibit the same even in their elementary school years.
Another research carried out by Messe (2005) noted that adopted children in their preschool tend to be at greater risks of problem behaviors than non-adopted children. On the same note, another research has noted that the same children tend to show moderate amounts of behavioral and temperamental forces (Pearlmutter et al., 2008). The two pieces of research suggest that there should be enough predictive courage for both adopted and non-adopted kids.
Adopted kids tend to have better experiences with their families, benefiting more in the families than non-adopted children (Groze and Rosenthal, 1991). Single-mother households do exhibit better chances of humanity than dual-parent households. Most of the single-parent households, of course, hold adopted children. For this reason, the simple relationship structure is what makes the adopted children have more bonds to their caregivers than non-adopted children. Biological parents can have more problematic relationships with their children as compared to adoptive parents. Preschool children in biological families tend to show higher levels of aggressiveness delinquent behaviors. Furthermore, they tend to exhibit anxiety and symbols of depression (Rohner, 2004). Adoptees may be seen by their mothers and fathers with more negativity as opposed to children from biological families. Further, they may tend to be raised with less warmth as compared to the children from non-adoptive parents.
Adopted children along with their caregivers can experience a challenge while transitioning to school. As far as the best characteristics are examined, however, post-adoption development can better be understood for adopted children than non-adopted children (Loke, 2012). Even though there is some character development in both children, there are associated differences hence, there may be some targets used to build upon the most important strengths differently such as the learning capabilities. Further, the differences may extend to the children's zest and social intelligence. Adopted children, therefore may find more benefit from activities regarding education and hence tap into the strengths better than non-adopted children.
Adopted children in preschool have similar characters. These characters include "Love, Creativity, Humor, Curiosity and Kindness" (Park and Peterson, 2006). Various development dimensions are associated with non-adopted children. Most of the non-adopted preschoolers tend to adjust their environment over time. Throughout the time of development, however, the non-adopted children may tend to have a considerate increase in characteristics including anxiety among other internalizing problems (Tan, 2011). Adopted children may experience attachment disorders where they can have issues with love and affection. This case may make adopting caregivers be vigilant about the love provided by the children. However, this is not the fact for non-adopted kids
Sharma et al. (1998) were involved in an investigation that sampled 715 adopted and non-adopted children. In a similar research, it was noted that "those children with experience in the foster care system and who are adopted may come to same-sex parent families with more disadvantaged backgrounds than children living in other types of families" (Manning, Fettro & Lamidi, 2014). Adopted children can, however, be on better terms regarding the "externalizing and internalizing of behaviors across the male same-sex, female same-sex and different-sex families" (Manning, Fettro & Lamidi, 2014). The parenting processes of the adopted children such as co-parenting, however, work in a related way to that of non-adopted children.
The adoptive parents have a likelihood of having higher socioeconomic status than biological parents. It is, therefore, likely that most of the adopted children experience the feeling of better housing conditions than non-adopted children. For this reason, the living conditions can reflect in the child's IQ. Since adoption services happen due to the lack of resources by biological parents, the adopted children tend to be placed in better functioning environments than their non-adopted counterparts. Even though most adoptive parents can go through a hell of a ride as they go through the whole adoption process, they would tend to give their kids better resources than the non-adoptive parents would ever give hence, raise kids who perform better in pre-school than non-adoptive parents. Adoption can, therefore, have various positive effects on a child's development.
Adopted children, however, may exhibit challenges in their development and may tend to convey the risk of later behavioral and psychological problems (Iervolino, 2003). A research by Juffer and Ijzendoorn (2005) has noted that adopted kids have higher levels of maladjustment as compared to non-adopted kids. These maladjustment conditions may be related to their prenatal statuses, institutionalization before they are placed and genetic risk factors that commonly arise from biological parents. These risks tend to amplify within the various families where the kids "are adopted and some are the biological children of the adoptive parents" (Sharma, McGue, & Benson, 1998).
In conclusion, it is evident that there are within-family variations where adoptive and non-adoptive parents differ in the relationship with their children. It can also be noted that the variations noted may differ according to the qualities of the relationship issued to the children alongside their emotional and behavioral adjustments. Even as adoption remains to be an important option for many families, the various challenges accompanying non-adoptive parents may leave the future parents with a pool of options disregarding raising biological children.
Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic Stress, Coercive Family Process, and Developmental Problems of Adolescents. Child Development, 65(2), 541. doi:10.2307/1131401
Groze, V. K., & Rosenthal, J. A. (1991). Single parents and their adopted chi...
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