The Mediterranean World Since 1500 - Paper Example

Published: 2023-01-14
The Mediterranean World Since 1500 - Paper Example
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  History Islam Muslim Christianity
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1758 words
15 min read

The Mediterranean region consists of many countries in the three continents, that is, Europe, Africa, and Asian (Braudel, 1995). The adverse climatic conditions increased tension on geographers and historian; therefore, documentation of the impacts of the geographic factors on human history has been proposed by many scholars in the world. Human history relies on the geographical elements of the places inhabited by the people. Therefore archaeology provides a pivotal model used in the analysis of the historical events in comparison with the current occurrences. Most scholars have linked human history with ecological changes in the world. The Mediterranean Sea affects the environmental conditions in the surrounding regions, therefore, causing climatic changes (Braudel, 1995). Climate change affects human history because major activities rely on environmental influences. Social and religious practices rely on the climatic factors experienced in the region.

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Religion spread as a result of explorations undertaken by different people with varying religious faiths. The explorers from southern Europe and the Middle East visited the Mediterranean region to identify the lifestyles of the people in northern parts of African and spread their religion. The differences in the economic development in southern European countries like Greece and North African countries like Libya and Sudan resulted due to varying climatic conditions. The explorers from Italy and Greece visited the drier and remoter parts of the region like Algeria, Chad, and Sudan (Braudel, 1995). The migration of the people from one place to another resulted in the spread of the monotheistic religion. The people in the remoter area practiced traditional religion. Turkish practiced Islam because the country is adjacent to Arab empires. The changes in the environmental conditions in the Mediterranean region contributed to the differences in human history recorded by scholars.

Braudel provides succinct information that describes the religious history of the Mediterranean region. Archaeology and history of the description more on the settlement of the people and adoption of different religious beliefs in the same ecological conditions (Albera & Couroucli, 2012). The Mediterranean people and those living around the region adore one Creator. There were three monotheistic religions in the region, that is, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. The religions were practiced under the same religious backgrounds. The Creator was hailed by all three religions. The unity of the people was interrupted by civil wars and adverse climatic conditions (Braudel, 1995). During the 16th century, Christians fought the crusades to capture Jerusalem from the Muslims. The attacks on the Crusades affected the economies of the region and resulted in the spread of the three monotheistic religions in the world. The seizure of Jerusalem from the Muslims opened up the world for the European explorers and traders to discover the new world. The architecture used in the Mediterranean world differs depending on the religion of the people.

Greece has been experiencing heavy storms that destroy houses and places of worship. The floods also affect the economic growth of the region because it destroys crops in the fields. Destruction of the crops affected the normal pilgrimage of the people because agricultural produce was offered in places of worship. The crusades of the Muslims stimulated most of the developmental activities like science, philosophy, and medicine (Rupke, 2013). The crusades brought a lot of intercontinental changes, especially in Europe. The unique ecological conditions around the sea greatly influenced the religious practices because most activities, rituals, and events were performed in open places like hilltops, forests and rocky places. The climate and weather influenced these practices especially during winter and rainy seasons. Some places were favored the religious practices; therefore, people were forced to share the places. Sharing of the sacred places created unity and economic development since people were able to engage in other trading activities.

The Muslim occupied most parts of Turkey and were committed in their faith. Obedience and unity ensured that the Muslims attained their economic prosperity because of their trust in God. The elements described Koran, the Holy book of Islam enabled them to live with other people in The Muslim occupied most parts of Turkey and were committed in their faith. Obedience and unity ensured that the Muslims attained their economic prosperity because of their trust in God (Braudel, 1995). The elements described Koran, the Holy book of Islam enabled them to live with other people in peace. Faithfulness was adored in Islam because Abram was faithful to God and was ready to sacrifice his only son. Faithfulness was adored in Islam because Abram was faithful to God and was ready to sacrifice his only son. The Muslims served God completely without any compromise on the promises given by the Creator to the people.

The Muslims followed the footsteps of Abram by giving offerings and sacrifices to their only God. Islam adored the worship of no other god but Allah who is merciful to all people. Muhammad was the prophet of God who acted as the mediator between the people and the Creator; therefore, ensuring that the footsteps of Abram are followed. The exploration of the remoter places in Africa resulted in the spread of Islam (Braudel, 1995). Most of the Arabs were traders and who had an objective of conquering different places to undertake their business activities. Arabs moved from their motherland, Ottoman Empire through the sea into the northern African countries. The introduction of the sailing ships improved the mode of transport. After the arrival of the Arabs, the religious practices of the Africans changed because of the influences of Islam. The Muslims assimilated the Africans from their traditional and primitive rituals. Natural religion guided the Arabs to relate well with other people and adore philosophical concepts. Philosophical approaches ensured that people lived in peace; therefore, making it easy for them to share the sacred places due to the uniqueness of the region.

Hebrews adored Judaism which was the original monotheistic religion. Ideological differences among scholars and religious leaders resulted in the division of Judaism into Christianity and Islam. Traditionally, Judaism believed that the first five books in the bible were written by Moses under the revelation of Yahweh, The Almighty God (Albera & Couroucli, 2012). Judaism was widely practiced in Israel because the Hebrews viewed this place as their destiny provided and blessed by Yahweh. God gave the Ten Commandments to Moses on Mt Sinai (Rupke, 2013). The place became the most sacred places for the Hebrews. After the religious division, Hebrews continued to adore mountains and other places for their spiritual practices. Mount Sinai was held as the most sacred place for all the three monotheistic religion. Judaism emphasized the importance of peace and unity among all people living in the same geographical places and ecological conditions. The Jews did not hold the belief that Jesus was the Messiah or Christ because they believe that the coming of the anointed Messiah was not revealed and gave them hope for salvation.

The uniqueness of the Jews was the use of the synagogue for the worship (Braudel, 1995). The Jews also used the Talmud as their holy scripture. The desires of the Arabs to conquer many places for trading activities also resulted in an interaction between them and the Jews. The interaction of the Jews and the Muslim Arabs made them share the sacred places for worshiping God. After some time, some Jews were converted into Islam while some Arabs adopted Judaism. Human history provides a clear indication that the Arabs conquered Jerusalem in the early 1600s to achieve their economic prosperity (Albera & Couroucli, 2012). Catholics wanted to take the possession of Jerusalem from Arabs and spread their Christian beliefs to other people. All the monotheistic religions wanted to take over the Sacred Mountain of Sinai. After the arrival of the Catholics in Jerusalem, they had to share the mountain for spiritual purposes because all people believed that God dwelled on top of Mount Sinai.

Christianity was the third monotheistic religion in the Mediterranean region. The spread of Christianity was linked to the adventurous nature of the European (Rupke, 2013). Currently, more the two billion people in the world are Christians. The arrival of the British imperialists, explorers, and traders resulted in the spread of Christianity. The movement of the Christian missionaries from Europe depended on the ecological factors since the means of transport were majorly affected by heavy storms experienced in the region (Albera & Couroucli, 2012). Simple ships were used for transportation of trade goods, missionaries, and explorers from the one place to another. The advancement in ship technology enabled British veterans and Christian missionaries to arrive in the region (Rupke, 2013). The arrival and participation of the British in the trading activities improved the economies and religious architecture of the people because the new traders came with new commodities like bronze and steel that replaced iron. Steel and bronze were used to construct new and modern sacred places other than the natural structures and mountain tops.

Despite the positive impacts resulting from the arrival of the Christian missionaries in Jerusalem and remoter places of Africa, conflicts also occurred primarily in possession of the sacred areas and structures. The competition for the possession of the sacred places led to conflicts that later turned into severe crises and revolutionary wars around 1538 and 1589 (Braudel, 1995). The sea provided good battlegrounds for the involved veterans. Humanitarian organization and other third-party groups had to arrange for negotiation programs to end the war and encourage the participants to embark on reducing the gaps that existed in the Mediterranean region due to differences in geographical factors. The negotiations ensured that all people from different religions share sacred places and live in peace.

The geographical factors along the sea also contributed to spread of the Catholicism in the Mediterranean basin because the sea provided an effective means of transport for the missionaries to explore the interior parts of the region especially the northern parts of Africa (Rupke, 2013). The arrival of the Catholic missionaries did not result in any significant religious changes because their Arabs had already conquered most parts on the remoter countries and converted the local people to Islam. the early arrival and influences of the Arabs account for the present day a large number of Muslims in North African countries like Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, and Libya. The Romans visited Greece in the early 16th century in order to spread their Christian practices and gain more supporters in the Mediterranean region (Rupke, 2013). The Roman activities in Greece increased the influence of Catholicism, therefore converting a significant number of people to Christianity, specifically to Catholic denomination. The Catholicism did not succeed in Turkey because the majority of the people had become strong believers of Islam faith.

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