Free Essay: The Law Enforcement Field

Published: 2023-11-14
Free Essay: The Law Enforcement Field
Essay type:  Analytical essays
Categories:  Policy Forensic science Criminal justice
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 1058 words
9 min read

The journal paper problem asserted that the crisis of confidence has increased in social and behavioral sciences. One of the driving forces leading to a crisis of confidence, according to the study, is the low levels of statistical power in various studies. These weak analytical power levels are problematic because they lead to overestimates of effects, inflated or deflated discovery rates, and high rates of false or negative results. The study investigated whether the issue of the crisis of confidence impacts criminology.

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The problem statement is in line with the title, and it is of high relevance to criminology theory and practice hence posing great academic significance. The problem is also apparent to the average reader. The author articulates it right from the abstract and in the introduction section making it easy to understand and grasp. Although the problem is straightforward, what could not be apparent to the average reader is whether the problem necessitated a criminology study. Therefore, the reader is expected to read and internalize deeply to connect the problem with the context of criminology.

Literature Review

The author of the study used a literature review to justify the need for the research. The article cited several authors who have addressed a similar problem in other disciplines but did not delve deeply into the methodologies or findings. In that regard, the literature review lacks detail regarding the issue, especially in criminology. The author establishes various methods to employ in an attempt to uncover the study problem. Additionally, the paper supports statistical power's approach as the appropriate method to discover the issue of the crisis of confidence in the literature by posing questions that will guide the rest of the study. Overall, the literature is rich but lacks details on how previous studies approached the same matter. Suggestion empirical review would have looked at the crisis of confidence in other disciplines and how it has influenced the reliability and usability of their findings to inform decisions and policies.


Although the study leaned to the examination of previous studies' hypotheses, the article itself did not test any hypothesis. However, the paper sought to answer whether criminology is confident that the knowledge they share with policymakers or practitioners is true. Additionally, instead of a hypothesis, the paper sought answers to whether criminology is going to face a crisis of confidence. Despite the lack of a hypothesis, the purpose is concisely and clearly stated as well as in line with the study title.


The study sought to determine whether the criminology discipline is headed to a crisis of confidence. The study's specific objectives were to determine the average effect size of the meta-analyses and to establish the mean sample size of the meta-analyses.


The study's objective is not explicitly stated, but it is discussed in the introduction and literature. The purpose is specific, measurable, and concise. The author chose to achieve their objective by asking relevant questions and employing a meta-analysis method to uncover the answer to the problem. The author estimated the previous study's statistical power to establish their robustness to adjudge and determine whether criminology will face a crisis of confidence. The answer to the question was in harmony with the study objective, and the author used it to answer the research problem.


The study employed 81 meta-analyses drawing from published studies in criminology. The study relied on the sample sizes and the average effect size of meta-analyses in criminology discipline. The paper outlined the procedure for identifying and including meta-analyses and the method for calculating sample sizes and effect sizes.


The author articulated the research methodology, clearly explaining the methodology's choice, which was supported by sufficient literature. The author describes the identification of the meta-analyses and the calculation procedures. However, the author fails to report the validity or reliability of the meta-analyses. Additionally, the author was unable to provide a discussion of the statistical techniques employed and methods of presentation.


The paper indicated that the mean effect size of criminology studies was small to medium, as revealed by the mean effect size of 0.148. The study also found that the average samples in meta-analyses were 271, and there was a small difference between the studies that provided their sample size and the studies that did not. Intervention studies had a more restricted sample size range in comparison to non-intervention studies.

The study examined the statistical power of the studies and found that more than 50% of criminology studies are underpowered. This finding implies that the published criminology literature reports incorrect results, which may bring crisis at the policy and practice level. The study reported that there exists a variation in the level of statistical power. Additionally, in comparison to other behavioral sciences such as psychology and neuroscience, criminology has a relatively high statistical power.


The findings were well organized and presented in detail. The author corroborated the findings with the results of other researchers, making it exciting and easy to grasp. However, due to the statistical techniques and the fact that these techniques were not explained in the methodology section, interpreting and understanding the results can be difficult for the average reader.


The author discussed the findings in detail and compared to other disciplines. Since the results were varying given high statistical power in some of the studies and low in other studies, the author posed a question on which studies policymakers are reading. Overall the discussion section was well articulated.


The author did not give any summary.


The conclusion was based on the study findings. The study's conclusion was well written with the knowledge of the study problem. The author acknowledges the practices of criminologists and how those studies can impact their practice. In that regard, the conclusion addressed the research problem, and the author achieved the objectives of the study.


There were no recommendations.

In conclusion, the article's content relates to the law enforcement field since it addresses the issue of confidence in the policy, making decisions informed by the studies. Thus, if criminologists practice their profession informed by high-quality studies, they can make decisions that ensure criminal justice.


Barnes, J. C., TenEyck, M. F., Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2020). How Powerful Is the Evidence in Criminology? On whether We Should Fear a Coming Crisis of Confidence. Justice Quarterly, 37(3), 383-409. https://doi.10.1080/07418825.2018.1495252

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