Exercise is one of the best method known for keeping fit and healthy. In addition to this, it is known to keep diseases and any other form of illness at bay. Exercises do these by aiding in various processes of the body such as metabolism. As a result of this effect of exercise or training, there have been a growing number of people who turn to training as part of their daily activities. This paper is about the major types of exercises or training that people have been engaged in most of the time without knowing exactly the difference and their effects. The two training types are aerobic and anaerobic training. The paper looks at how one can practice each and every one of them, the impact on the body both short and long terms, which group of people usually practice them and their demerits as well. Training or exercise is the best solution for most of our health issues and a guarantee for a healthy living.
By definition, training, according to the online dictionary is physical activity that is structured, planned and is done repetitively with an aim of conditioning the body parts. The exercise essentially maintains fitness and improve health hence it is necessary for physical rehabilitation of the body. Exercise can be categorized into two broad groups namely: Aerobic and anaerobic exercises. The categorization depends on acquisition and utilization of energy by the body. Lieberman (2010) says that, Aerobic exercise, which is sometimes called cardio, is a type of physical exercise that primarily require a lot of oxygenated blood to be pumped to the muscles by the heart. The process requires plenty of oxygen and stimulates the heart rate to increase as well as the breathing rate to sustain the exercise session Seraganian (1993). Examples of activities depicting aerobic exercises include walking, running, swimming, aerobic classes among others. On the contrary, anaerobic exercise results from low usage of oxygen during an exercise session. It causes one to run out of breath faster due to insufficient supply of oxygen or the person involved in the activity not breathing properly. It includes activities such as lifting heavy weights or sprinting. Anaerobic and Aerobic Exercises have various effects some of which are discussed below.
First these activities enable the heart to become stronger hence pump a lot of blood with ease. Elite athletes are evident in this as they averagely have twice stroke volumes of air than the average individuals. The exercise also conditions the heart to have greater mass and diameter implying that the heart will have high efficiency. Also, according to Campbell (2009), activities also results in the heart having more significant strokes. Consequently, the heart does not have to pump faster to meet the blood requirement in the body. Such a condition is also evident in athletes whose hearts work efficiently, for example, at resting state their heart can be pumping effectively at a lower rate as 40 beats per minute, unlike the average person whose heart will beat at 60-80 beats per minute at resting state.
More so, the exercises get the muscles to be stronger and more efficient in oxygen consumption because of the increased enzymes that transport the oxygen out of the bloodstream and incorporate the gas in the muscle. It also makes the muscles have more endurance to strenuous activities. Finally, exercises increase the number of mitochondria in the muscles that are sites for energy or powerhouses for the muscle cells. The mitochondria burn fats using oxygen, which leads to more strength to the tissue and consequently to the whole body.
Aerobic and anaerobic exercises have various health benefits that are discussed here. First these activities help in Prevention of cancer: according to Seraganian (1993), physically active men and women have reduced chances of contracting colon cancer and physically active women, according to research have reduced chances of having breast cancer. Other types of cancers like prostate, lung among others have also been found to be occurring less in active men and women. Though there is little information how the activity of the body works to prevent the cancers.
The two activities help in Prevention of osteoporosis, which is a condition of low bone density, Lieberman (2010). The condition can lead to bone fracture that consequently may result in other health problems. Through the exercises, there is an increased mass of the bones, which lead to increased bone density. It can be seen in active children as opposed to sedentary children who are prone to fractures. Also, exercise aid in the reduction of depression since Regular exercise elevates someones moods. The free flow of blood to our body and brain during the exercise refreshes both the body and mind consequently making the body and mind to relax. It also eliminates depression, which always result from tension in the mind and the body.
Also, Exercises have been found to Control diabetes: exercise and healthy diet have proved to be excellent counters of diabetes, which is usually prevalent in sedentary individuals. The activities assist the body in utilizing the hormone insulin whose role is to convert glucose to energy. The efficiency of insulin in the body leads to proper functioning of the body system and elimination of diabetes in accordance to Journal of Education and Training Studies.
Furthermore, exercises are a Prevention measure against cardiovascular diseases. According to Baechle and Earle (2008), these are diseases of the heart such as stroke and heart attack that can cause great harm to an individual or worse still cause death. The exercises work by reducing blood pressure thus making the blood vessels to be more compliant and efficient. It also makes it easy for the body system to utilize the blood well and function properly. These activities also control obesity. According to Campbell (2009), exercises, burn a lot of calories that when left to accumulate leads to fat tissues forming leading to the body becoming fat. The big body will eventually lead to obesity, which is a critical stage and can cause health issues.
Adverse Effects of Exercise
Although exercises have benefits to the body, when they are not controlled they might prove detrimental to our health and body according to Seraganian (1993). The following are some of the demerits of exercising. To begin with, Exercises can be very addictive, and this is usually true mostly with the heavy weight lifters. After getting introduced to the exercise uncontrolled, the body tends to feel uncomfortable without it. For one to get the good feeling they will go for more and more exercise at the expense of other activities. These activities can also cause cardiovascular problems since too much exercise will overwork the heart by changing structures of the heart. The changing of the heart structure can cause serious health concerns that can eventually lead to death. In some cases, the activities can weaken someones immune system. Too much of exercising results to reduced immune system since the body becomes exhausted and, therefore, cannot fight pathogens effectively.
From the discussion and research, the different types of exercises have been tackled with procedures leading to each well stipulated. Benefits of regular exercise have also been discussed as well as the demerits. It has become evident that uncontrolled exercise can do more harm to us than good, and, therefore, we need controlled exercise to avoid the adverse effects. Despite the negativities, exercise remains to be excellent to our health, and it rejuvenates us.
Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W., & National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Campbell, A. (2009). The men's health big book of exercise: [four weeks to a leaner, stronger, more muscular you!]. Emmaus, Pa: Rodale.
Journal of Education and Training Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, February 2016
Lieberman, D. C. (2010). Aerobic exercise and athletic performance: Types, duration, and health benefits. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Biomedical Books.
Seraganian, P. (1993). Exercise Psychology: The Influence of Physical Exercise on Psychological Processes. New York: J. Wiley.
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