Seed dispersal

Published: 2019-10-01 08:30:00
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Seed dispersal is defined as the transport or movement of matured seeds from the parent plant (Symes, 2012). It ensures that the seeds find a suitable condition that enhances their growth. Dispersal of seeds also aids in reducing competition with the parent thereby ensuring migration of the species and their interaction patterns with other species. The mechanism of seed dispersal is essential in determining the population of a given plant. Such mechanisms include: wind, water, animal as well as mechanical.

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Animal

Animals in most cases disperse seeds of flowering plants. Some of these plants produce fruits that the animals feed on (Symes, 2012). The seeds are coated in embryo that protects them from digestion. When the animal defecates, it deposits the seeds far away from the parent plant. Some plants also have their fruits in form of burrs. These cling on animal furs as they move thereby dispersing the seeds to a new location. Animals such as squirrel burry seeds to keep the as food upon collection and sometimes forget to come for them. This leaves the seeds planted in the ground where they can grow in a new place.

Wind

This the simplest form by which seeds are dispersed. The seeds dispersed in this way are winged seeds, puff seeds and tumbleweeds (Symes, 2012). They produce many seeds in order to ensure that some of them grow into plants. Some plants have fruits that act as propellers and aid in wind dispersal. Tumbleweeds are blown as a whole when they dry thus dispersing its seeds.

Water

This aids in dispersing seeds that float on water as the water travels to another destination where the seeds are deposited. An example is the Castano-spermum austral seeded pod (Symes, 2012). The plants also produce many seeds.

Mechanical

This includes popping mechanism where the pod dries as the seed matures. The husk shrinks then bursts to scatter the seeds to a shorter distance away from the parent plant. An example is the Hura crepitans seed.

Cucumber: Cucumis sativus and its origin is India.

Tomato: Solanum lycopersicum originated from Central and South America.

Orange: Citrus sinensis originated from Southern China.

Banana: Musa acuminate origin is South East Asia and New Guinea.

Apple: Malus domestica is thought to have originated from Central Asia.

Tomato sectionorange sectionbanana sectionapple section Apple section

Bean sproutalfalfa sprout

The worlds largest fruit is Jackfruit.

Source: CITATION Mar14 \l 1033 (Silver, 2014)The largest seed in the world is the seed of a palm tree and is known as Lodoicea maldivica.

Source: CITATION Sud11 \l 1033 (Hukumar, 2011)The black jack, Bidens pilosa fruit has evolved to be dispersed in a passive way.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Hukumar, S. (2011, August 14). sudanshukumar.wordpress.com. Retrieved June 11, 2016, from sudanhukumar.wordpress.com: https://sudanshukumar.wordpress.com/2011/08/14/largest-seed-of-the-world-it-is-just-like-simple-coconut-tree/

Silver, M. (2014, May 1). NPR. Retrieved June 11, 2016, from NPR: http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/05/01/308708000/heres-the-scoop-on-jackfruit-a-ginormous-fruit-to-feed-the-world

Symes, C. T. (2012). Seed dispersal and seed banks in Aloe marlothii (Asphodelaceae). South African Journal of Botany, 78, 276-280.

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