Strength- elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (AIC), were used to determine the burden of type two diabetes. It is a strength because A1C method is the most widely accepted indicator for blood glucose control in both clinical methods as well as research work. A finger-stick procedure was used to obtain the blood, and a Bayer 2000 analyzer was used to analyze the sample. The measurement of the variable was bound to be accurate since the equipment used is accurate.
Limitation- The method can be costly and time-consuming as compared to the rapid tests.
Response- Diabetes knowledge.
Strength- the variable is useful in the sense that it is important in assessing the retention of cognitive information regarding the causes, symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.
Limitation-Religion plays a very significant role in the health practices of Mexican Americans and therefore any negative religious beliefs may affect the knowledge retention.
Are the major variables defined (conceptually and operationally) based on previous research and/or theories?
Response- the conceptual definition of diabetes knowledge has been given. In this research, diabetes knowledge has been described as the retention of cognitive information regarding the causes, symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. However, the conceptual and operational definition of glycemic control has not been given.
Strength- the advantage of giving a conceptual and operational definition is that it helps the reader to understand the real meaning of a variable and how exactly it has been used or measured in the study. The conceptual definitions have been cited making them more authentic while acknowledging the source.
Limitation- the fact that some operational definitions have not been given means that the reader may sometimes not understand how to go they have been measured and whether it is similar to others.
Is the conceptual definition of a variable consistent with the operational definition?
Response- The given conceptual definition is in line with the operational definition. Diabetes knowledge has been used consistently with the operational definition.
Strength- it gives the reader a good flow as it enables them to know if there is a difference in the original meaning and usage of a term and the use in a study.
Limitation- The consistency with the conceptual definition may confuse an individual. It may be difficult to follow the operational meaning having known the conceptual definition.
What demographic variables are examined in the study?
Response- the demographic variables used are the age of the respondents, acculturation, income, education, health insurance coverage, and Religious affiliation.
Strength- the different variables were key in determining the knowledge retention and in general the glycemic control.
Limitation- sometimes the demographic information has no relationship with the intended independent variable or the specific thing that the researcher is looking for.
Are the measures or instruments clearly described?
The instruments and measurements are clearly described in the study. For instance, a bilingual (English and Spanish) Deyo 4-item, language-based acculturation scale was used to measure acculturation. The scores have been described to be on a scale of 0-4. Furthermore, the meaning of the scores has also been described and discussed.
Glycemic control was measured by using A1C levels. The researchers have identified the recommended range for A1Cm, which is between 4.0% and 6.0%. Also, A1C levels were drawn at a local community diabetes educational agency by trained staff. Still on measurements, a finger-stick procedure was used to obtain the blood, and a Bayer 2000 analyzer was used to analyze the sample.
Another tool is the bilingual (English and Spanish) DHBM, which was used to measure the belief of the participant in management of diabetes. The goal of development was also discussed as well as the segments. It was a 25-item, 100-total-point-possible DHBM, with 1 control item and 4 subscales. The interpretation was also discussed where a higher score was an indicator of higher belief in ability to manage diabetes.
2. Are the accuracy, precision, selectivity, and error of the (reliability and validity) instruments discussed?
Response- The selectivity of an instrument is the ability of a type of method or instrumentation to respond to a specified substance or constituent and not to others. In this study the instrument was the Bayer 2000 analyzer, which was accurate.
Validity-is the degree to which results obtained from analysis of the data actually represents the phenomenon under study. It means the agreement between value of measurements and its true value. Validity is quantified by comparing measurements with values that are close to the true values as possible. This of the study was achieved from a pilot study. There was a previous pilot project that was done at the clinic, and it was found to have acceptable psychometric properties.
Reliability-is the measure of the degree to which a research yields consistent results or data after repeated trials. It is the degree of consistency that the research instruments or procedures demonstrate and it is qualified by taking several measurements on the same subjects.
Strength- The strength of reliability is that it ensures that the products of the research can be replicated in other trials. The strength of validity lies in the degree to which results obtained from analysis of the data actually represents the phenomenon under study. As no a noteworthy modifications is required, a new pre-test is considered unnecessary. Thus, the study allowed for the protection of sensitive information in the literature.
Limitation- a pilot study made a different representation of the real sample and target population.
Are the methods for recording data from the physiological measures clearly described?
Response- The methods for recording data from the physiological measures were clearly described. A bilingual (English and Spanish) DHBM was used to measure the belief of the participant in management of diabetes. The responses were recorded on paper forms. Also, there is a clear recording of the AIC levels.
Strength- a clear description of the physiological measures is key in helping an individual who is reading the work to understand how everything was done. For instance in this study, it is easy to follow how the blood glucose levels were measured, and consequently understand the values.
Limitation- the main limitation of recording data on the paper is that data can easily get lost. The researcher could have considered recording the findings using the computer or electronically.
Lujan, J., Ostwald, S. K., & Ortiz, M. (2007). Promotora diabetes intervention for Mexican Americans. The Diabetes Educator, 33(4), 660-670.
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