Psychology Final Project

Published: 2017-09-20 07:05:42
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George Washington University
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Article review
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 Review of Article 1

Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, D. L. (2015). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. Stigma and Health, 1(S), 2

The purpose of the article to demonstrate that public service groups, the government, and public advocacy groups should integrate research evidence in social psychology in implementing interventions, strategies, and programs that aim at preventing stigma against people who have severe mental illnesses. The authors hypothesize that the use of protests to mitigate stigma against persons with severe mental illnesses within the society would be counterproductive. The authors also argue that many societal stereotypes are resilient, making educational interventions less effective in mitigating them. On the basis of research evidence, the authors propose that institutional support, promotion of equality and cooperative interaction with the society are the most effective interventions or strategies that interested groups can overcome the stigma that members of the society direct at persons who have severe mental illnesses.

Societal stereotypes are addressed by the authors as the main independent variables that are associated with their study. The findings of the researchers indicate that it is these stereotypes that are attributed to the stigma that persons with severe mental illnesses experience. In order to come up with reliable solutions for the identified societal issue, the authors examine various factors that contribute to the stigmatization of individuals with severe mental illnesses. This includes the values and beliefs of the society on mental illnesses and the prejudice that is directed at the affected people. The researchers use past research evidence on the stigmatization of individuals with severe mental illness to inform their conclusions. The researchers identify gaps in the research literature, which are attributed to the application of ineffective methods by government agencies, public service groups and public advocacy groups in their attempts to mitigate stigma against persons with severe mental illness. Through the meta-analysis of past research literature, the authors present reliable solutions to the identified problems. There are no ethical concerns that were associated with their study because it was based on secondary research method.

Review of Article 2

Monforton, J., Vickers, K., & Antony, M. M. (2012). “If Only I Didn't Embarrass Myself in Front of the Class!": Social Anxiety and Upward Counterfactual Thinking. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 312

The purpose of this article is to examine and report on the relationship that exists between social anxiety and the “if only…” thoughts, which emerge when an individual imagines the better outcomes that would have emanated from past actions or decisions. These thoughts are referred to as upward counterfactual thinking. The research within the article is based on the hypothesis that social anxiety is related to thoughts that things would have been better if different actions were taken. The research in the article duplicates similar studies in the past, which indicates that there is a relationship between social anxiety and upward counterfactual thinking.

In their study, the researchers examined social anxiety as their independent variable and upward counterfactual thinking as the dependent variable. The cause-effect analysis allowed the authors to establish that there is a relationship between the two factors. The researchers used a true experimental design involving introductory psychology students and community members to demonstrate that the relationship between social anxiety and upward counterfactual thinking is not significant. The researchers used random sampling to prevent ethical issues, such as bias and subjectivity in the data collection process. The authors objectively report the limitations of their study, including the use of hypothetical scenarios in their study.

Review of Article 3

Stein, A., Pearson, R. M., Goodman, S. H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., & Pariante, C. M. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet, 384(9956), 1800-1819.

The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship perinatal mental disorders and the risk of developing psychological problems among children. The study is based on the hypothesis that perinatal mental disorders play a role in influencing the development of psychological disturbances in childhood and adolescence. The authors examined a wide range of independent variables, including perinatal mental disorders, caregiving difficulties and social economic status with a view of determining whether they play a role in influencing the psychological outcomes of children. The independent variables that the researchers examined are the psychological outcomes that are manifested in children and adolescents of parents with mental disorders.

The researchers used meta-analysis of longitudinal studies to report that there are several mechanisms that are related to the observed association between the psychiatric disorders of parents and the psychological outcomes of their children. On the basis of their research evidence, the authors report that an interaction of genetic processes, parental psychiatric disorders, biological processes during pregnancy, social economic status of parents and parenting behavior play a role in influencing the psychological and social outcomes that children and adolescents exhibit. The article presents reliable research evidence that informs practice in social sciences and psychology, including interventions that target socioeconomically groups in minimizing the risk of psychological disturbances among children and adolescents. The application of meta-analyses of longitudinal studies as the preferred study design eliminated ethical concerns in the study.

Review of Article 4

Rudy, B. M., May, A. C., Whiting, S. E., Davis, T. E., Jenkins, W. S., & Reuther, E. T. (2014). Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 43(2), 111-121. doi:10.1080/16506073.2013.859170

The purpose of this article is to determine the variables that contribute to the co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia. The researcher hypothesized that shared variables, such as cognitive traits, environmental factors, and genetic predispositions play a role in the co-occurrence of the two disorders. In order to authenticate their arguments, the authors conducted an exploratory research with a goal of determining the differences in perfectionism and fear of negative social evaluation among four groups of patients with a co-occurrence of OCD and social phobia.

The researchers conducted surveys to measure the differential variables of OCD and social phobia comorbidity, including concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, parental expectations, personal standards, and perfectionism. The study revealed that the independent variables that are associated with both OCD and social phobia contribute to the comorbidity of the two disorders. The researchers based their study on the fact that past research on the topic had not provided an in-depth understanding of the various variables that increase the risk of developing OCD and social phobia comorbidity. Their research is applicable in informing and enhancing therapeutic and preventive techniques on OCD and social phobia comorbidity. The ethical implications of the study were taken into consideration by the researchers, including respect for the privacy and upholding of the dignity of the participants of the study.

Review of Article 5

Bungert, M., Koppe, G., Niedtfeld, I., Vollstädt-Klein, S., Schmahl, C., Lis, S., & Bohus, M. (2015). Pain processing after social exclusion and its relation to rejection sensitivity in borderline personality disorder. Plos ONE, 10(8), 1-22. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133693

The research in this article was purposed at demonstrating how physical pain is processed by patients who socially excluded due to rejection sensitivity that is associated with borderline personality disorder. The research is based on the hypothesis that abandonment and social rejection induces physical and social pain. However, the authors argue that this pain relies on the brain structures of the patient.  The researchers were motivated to conduct research on this topic by the fact that past empirical studies provide sparse evidence on the alterations of social and physical pain among patients with borderline personality disorder. The researchers sought to establish the link between social and physical pain among patients with borderline personality disorder. The researchers used an experimental design to measure the level of rejection sensitivity that is exhibited by patients with borderline personality disorder and the associated social and physical pain.

The researchers measured the pain processing of participants after being subject to social exclusion. Their study revealed that social exclusion modulates rejection sensitivity among patients with borderline personality disorder. The authors report that since rejection sensitivity affects neural processing of pain, it contributes to the social and physical pain which patients with borderline personality disorder experience. However, the study was limited by the fact that the researchers involved only female borderline personality disorder patients to assess their social exclusion outcomes against a healthy group. The anonymity of the participants was preserved in the study. Therefore there were no ethical issues of concern during the study.

References

Bungert, M., Koppe, G., Niedtfeld, I., Vollstädt-Klein, S., Schmahl, C., Lis, S., & Bohus, M. (2015). Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder. Plos ONE, 10(8), 1-22. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133693

Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, D. L. (2015). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. Stigma and Health, 1(S), 2

Monforton, J., Vickers, K., & Antony, M. M. (2012). “If Only I Didn't Embarrass Myself in Front of the Class!": Social Anxiety and Upward Counterfactual Thinking. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 312

Rudy, B. M., May, A. C., Whiting, S. E., Davis, T. E., Jenkins, W. S., & Reuther, E. T. (2014). Differentiating Among Singular and Comorbid Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Social Phobia Symptomology. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 43(2), 111-121. doi:10.1080/16506073.2013.859170

Stein, A., Pearson, R. M., Goodman, S. H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., & Pariante, C. M. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet, 384(9956), 1800-1819.

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