|Type of paper:||Course work|
|Categories:||Medicine Pharmacology Nursing management|
Lung artery clot caused by vein thrombosis is known as pulmonary embolism (PE) while venous thromboembolism comprises of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). The stage and severity of PE such as high risk, intermediate or slow risks determine the type of treatment and care plan. Management process includes pharmacologic therapy with thrombolytics and anticoagulation which is classified into long-term or extended periods depending on the condition of the patient (Leibfried, Falbaum, & Palummo, 2018). The purpose of management of treatment is to reduce the risks of PE such as death, impaired functional outcomes and hypertension, avoid the risk of reoccurrence and clot resolution.
Management treatment for the initial phase after presentation includes administering thrombolytics, oral anticoagulants and parental anticoagulants to reduce mortality and reoccurrence (Leibfried et al., 2018). Long-term treatment management includes taking anticoagulants for three months. Long-term treatment depends on whether the pulmonary embolism was provoked or not and patients should be evaluated after three months to determine whether the therapy is helpful or not. Extended anticoagulation is the treatment management beyond six months, and it is advised for patients whose thrombosis has been triggered by nonsurgical factors (Leibfried et al., 2018). Patients with high risk PE require immediate resuscitation and extensive care in the intensive-care units (ICU) (Hui & McFadden, 2013). Patients with low risks require anticoagulants as outpatients with a follow up on long-term therapy.
The nursing implications in the treatment and care of anticoagulation therapy involve nurses carefully assessing, monitoring and effectively educating the patients on anticoagulation medicine to enhance full benefits and reduce potential harm. Nurses need to understand how to calculate the drip rates with changing does, familiarize with different colors of warfarin tablets, collect the patient's weight, monitor signs of bleeding, red urine, menstrual flow, tarry stools and epistaxis and finally to instruct patients to a lot of vitamin K which is antidote for warfarin (Kane-Gill et al., 2013).
In conclusion, pharmacological management of deep vein thrombosis and the pulmonary embolisms involve long-term and extended periods of treatment to reduce recurrence and to aid in clot resolution. Treatment management is important to reduce the consequences such as death, impaired functional outcomes and hypertension. Nurses are responsible either in the hospitals or healthcare facilities to assess and monitor the treatment of patients by administering anticoagulants.
Hui, D. S., & McFadden, P. M. (2013). Contemporary surgical management of acute massive pulmonary embolism. In Principles and Practice of Cardiothoracic Surgery. InTech. DOI: 10.5772/53969
Kane-Gill, S. L., Wytiaz, N. P., Thompson, L. M., Muzykovsky, K., Buckley, M. S., Cohen, H., & Seybert, A. L. (2013). A real-world, multicenter assessment of drugs requiring weight-based calculations in overweight, adult critically ill patients. The Scientific World Journal, 2013. Retrieved from; https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/909135/
Leibfried, M. Falbaum, S. & Palummo, J. (2018). Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. Retrieved from; https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/treatment-of-pulmonary-embolism
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