Paper Sample on Exploring Historical Crossroads: Essays on Industrialization, Reforms, and Global Transformations

Published: 2023-11-12
Paper Sample on Exploring Historical Crossroads: Essays on Industrialization, Reforms, and Global Transformations
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  History Government World War 1 Industrial revolution
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1664 words
14 min read

Industrial Revolution in England

The availability of large deposits of coal, stable governance, and the formation of different organizations aimed at welcoming innovations from the citizens made England the first country to have an industrial revolution. The government involved and accepted ideologies from different people. The availability of skilled labor also played a vital role in the Industrial Revolution in England, and the citizens of England were liberal in accepting new forms of industrialization (Heaverly, 2020). Earlier results of industrialization activities were assessed and improved hence the Industrial Revolution.

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Impact of Industrialization on Working Class

The impact faced by the working class due to industrialization is that the working class had to live in small and crowded houses, threatening their health since there were disease outbreaks. The working class lacked a lot to eat, and a large number of the working class people died as a result of starvation. Families were separated and assigned different tasks to work on as a result of industrialization. After the Industrial Revolution, the working class was paid reduced wages since payment was per time worked, or work is done.

Reform Movements in Europe from 1830-1850

The reform movements in Europe that appeared in 1830-1850 included moral reforms whereby campaigns to eradicate sexual immorality such as prostitution and instead promote abstinence among the youths. Another reform that occurred was the woman suffrage whereby women were granted the right to participate in voting and also the right to hold a public office. Abolition was also reform witnessed, and it entailed fighting against racism.

Liberal Threats by Communist Ideas

Communist ideas were geared towards establishing a specific social and economic order which was already in force. Communism's ideas threatened liberals because the liberals' ideas advocated for free markets, governance to be limited, free trade, and the establishment of human rights to govern each individual. The government did not give room for the establishment of the ideas from the liberals as it gained from the communist ideas that were in force.

Russian Changes under Tsar Alexander II

Reforms under Tsar Alexander II's governance included the formation of a very large army that consisted of many poor people who could defend the nation against the Western armies which were considered modern; public education was also reformed during the reign of Tsar Alexander II by extending popular education, opening secondary schools and women were now able to attend school. Economic reforms included the founding of a state bank, and municipal banks were also founded. Legislating system finance was realized.

Achievement of Unification in Italy

Italy achieved unification by the need to form a unified state that would help defeat a common enemy during the Franco-Austrian war in 1858. Proclamation of the Italian kingdom in 1861 led to unification in Italy since the voting conducted made it possible to unify the entire peninsula. Another factor that led to Italy's unification was the recognition of Italian independence by the United States in the year 1861.

Germany and Italy Unification Differences

Germany's unification was easier than Italy's unification, which was so because Germany had a Confederation Parliament, unlike Italy. The customs union in Germany helped to unify Germany. However, Italy lacked a customs union, and what led to Italy's unification was the presence of a common enemy. Another difference between Germany's and Italy's unification was that Germany's unification took less time as compared to the time duration that Italy achieved its actual unification.

European changes in Africa

The major change imposed in Africa by the Europeans was the introduction of the European languages. The European invasion of Africa led to a change in currency. They introduced money to replace the butter trade, which involved the estimation of goods' value. Europeans also led educational changes by introducing formal education, which replaced informal education in African nations. Especially in the western African countries, Europeans introduced the slave trade. The African nations even imposed taxes on the slave trade.

European Profits from Imperialism

Countries that imposed imperialism benefited from imperialism. Countries that did not profit from imperialism are the ones in which imperialism was enforced. Countries that profited from imperialism acquired minerals and agricultural produce. Such countries include England, Scotland, and Great Britain. Countries that did not profit from imperialism in Ireland.

Justification of Imperialism by Europeans

Among the many responsibilities that the Europeans had, the justification was among them, including the uplifting of some of the most native people, the African people. They justified imperialism by claiming that they were expected to civilize as well as Christine the Africans and other native nations as. The whole process was based on Darwinism's social ideas, and they named it the White Man's Burden.

Industrial/Agricultural Innovations of 1870-1890

The development of the telephone was among the key industrial innovations in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell. Its influence has developed not only in the industrial and agricultural sectors but also in other sectors. Another innovation was the development of the incandescent light bulb. However, the idea was not new to the people. However, its development by Thomas Edison in 1879 was one of the greatest innovations in the industrial and agricultural sectors. Another innovation was the phonograph developed by Edison in 1877.

Causes of the Russian Revolution in 1905 and its Consequences

The most significant causes were the failure in the leadership roles in different states in the nations and the different policies that such leaders developed. Other causes of the revolution were the increasing rates of poverty and hunger. The Russo-Japanese War was another cause of the revolution and the increasing number of reformers within the country and other revolutionary groups. The revolution resulted in the creation of more political parties, and everyone started having their incubating (Kirschenbaum, 2019). The revolution also caused more unrest among the peasants and military mutinies.

Causes of World War I

The most immediate event that resulted in the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The event took place in June 1914, when a group of terrorists named the Black Hand was assigned the task of assassinating Archduke. Although their first attempt failed, he was later assassinated during the day by Gavrilo Princip. The main reason for the event was that Serbia wanted to be in control of both Bosnia and Herzegovina, but Archduke was against that move.

What Nations Hoped to gain from World War I

The majority of the nations that participated in World War I had their territorial aims. Belgium hoped to evacuate the Germans living in their nation as well as restore Alsace-Lorraine to France. Italy's participation in the war hoped to get the Trentino. Italy still hoped to restore some of its allies, who had initially been defeated.

How World War I Became a Total War

Many governments were fighting for their purposes. The attraction of such governments is one of the most significant ways World War I became a total war. The extent to which different populations participated in the war had never been evidenced in history, hence another way the war became a total war. The war was completely different compared to the way other fights took place previously.

Impact of the Civil War on the Russian Revolution

The Civil War had previously played a great role in saving unity and destroying slavery. However, the war had a significant impact on the Russian Revolution, which included the revolution's suffocation and some of its most critical aims. The war still destroyed democracy hence denying the citizens their rights of expression. Still, the war played a great role in creating a better way for the Stalinist dictatorship (Kirschenbaum, 2019). Those were part of the unintended impacts of the Russian Revolution, especially on the Reds and the Great Powers.

Impact of Stalin's Policies on Russian Citizens

The most significant impact of such policies was improving the living standards of Russian citizens. The policies aimed at feeding the Russian population could only be successful through the effective implementation of the agricultural sector, which played a critical role in the Soviet economy. The policies aimed to achieve all that through the development of more efficient production mechanisms, including an increased application of machinery within the agricultural sector, mostly tractors.

How Hitler Rose to Power as Germany's Fuhrer

Hitler adopted the Enabling Act of 1933, and that played a great role in his attainment of power in March 1933. He managed to do all that by expanding his authority to the other parts of the country. That way, mainly because he was appointed the Chancellor in the same year by President Paul von Hindenburg (Murphy, 2020). Various elections have initially taken place, as well as the associated backroom intrigues.

Main Issues of Protestation in the 1960s

The majority of the youths in many nations became aware of some of the most significant social issues in the mid-1960s. Some of such issues that greatly promoted the youths to participate in such protests included war and starvation. They came up with different movements aimed at different goals, including the anti-poverty movements, the anti-war, and anti-censorship.

Impact of Soviet Union Breaking up and the Transformation to a Market Economy

The secret police were dismantled after the Soviet Union broke up. There was a development of the perestroika, which was known as economic restructuring. That was part of the various attempts to develop a better relationship with the Western European countries and the US.


Heaverly. (2020). Jane Austen's View on the Industrial Revolution in Pride and Prejudice. Linguistics and Literature Journal, 1(1), 1-6.

Kirschenbaum, L. A. (2019). 1917: Revolution in Russia and Its Aftermath by Emma Goldman et al., and: The Russian Revolution and Its Global Impact: A Short History with Documents by Jonathan Daly and Leonid Trofimov, and: World Revolution, 1917–1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International by CLR James. Journal of World History, 30(3), 452-459.

Murphy, D. T. (2020). A big, new Hitler? Capitalism,‘Anglo-America’, and Hitler’s War. Journal of Strategic Studies, 1-15.

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