Osteoporosis Research Paper

Published: 2017-11-16 09:25:00
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Osteoporosis Medical Definition

Osteoporosis is a form of ill health in which bones becomes weak, and the affected is more likely to break some joints. The condition does not have symptoms, and one may not know when he or she is ill of the ailment. Becoming weaker is not an apparent show of the disease unless one breaks a bone. Some of the specific parts of the body, which may be affected, include the spine, wrist, and hips. Someone who has this condition experience a severe back pain and deformity (Marcus & Feldman, 2013).  

Difference between Osteopenia and Osteoporosis

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis both affect human beings and have related risks. The two can be mitigated and prevented by one engaging in regular exercises and eating a nutritious and healthy diet. Osteopenia is classified under bone infections, but if it proceeds, it becomes Osteoporosis. A person with Osteopenia has a low bone density than the standard normal levels, but it cannot be as low as someone who has Osteoporosis. For an individual to be diagnosed with Osteopenia the T-score bone mineral density should be between - 1.0 to -2.5. Therefore, people with Osteopenia condition are at risk of having Osteoporosis, even though the condition may not be a must to develop to the advanced stages, Osteoporosis (Alexander, & Knight, 2011).  

 In Osteopenia, there are no symptoms but is recognized through a test that is done to screen for osteoporosis through the bone test. Similarly, women are at a very high risk of suffering from Osteopenia as compared to men. The condition is common in women since the changes that occur during menopause can speed up the ill effects (Steinberg, & Apter, 2014). Osteoporosis and Osteopenia can be treated differently. For instance, for people suffering from Osteopenia, a dietary change is suggested, but for someone with Osteoporosis, the doctor prescribes medication to the affected. The drugs are usually bisphosphonates and may include Boniva, Binosoto, Fosamax, and   Actonel.

Osteoporosis Essay 

Pathophysiology and Epidemiology of the Disease Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is characterized by low mass bone and structural deterioration that is explained by genetic aspects of its pathogenesis. In young people, a reduction in mineral bone density and bone structures are viewed as predictors of genetically inherited Osteoporosis.

Maximum bone structure load is an important pathophysiological component for bone metabolism balance. In addition, sex hormones like estrogen are determinants of biomechanical signal and can be determined by calcium-regulating hormones.  The epidemiologic evidence is believed to have originated from an occurrence of hip fracture (Moon, Cooper, & Harvey, 2016). Screen test for Osteoporosis gives out results for bone density, but not structure.

 Different diagnostic criteria have been applied to prove the existence of Osteoporosis, and this includes bone densitometry. Single mineral bone density would predict future hip and spine fractures. Since World Health Organization came up with 2.5 standard deviations below average mean value for bone mass diagnostic in the spine or hip of women who have reached menopause, the risks of Osteoporosis have not been recognized. As a result, there little knowledge about this disease, meaning that future research will be carried out, and more information added.

What are the Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Bone Densitometry and T-Score

Bone densitometry is a bone mineral test that gives results in bone health. It can be used in the identification of osteoporosis and determine the risk of suffering from fractures. Different tests can be carried out, but the most common one is “central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry” that can be used to measure bone density at the hip and the spine. There is also “Peripheral bone density tests” which measure the density of bones at specific parts including wrist, finger, heel and the lower arm.

Normally, the results are compared to the bone mineral density of someone who is 30-years old and healthy, and a T-score given. The T-score can be evaluated as follows: normal bone density lies within 1 SD (+1 or −1) of the mean of a young adult. For the case of low bone mass, it lies between 1 and 2.5 SD below the mean (−1 to −2.5 SD). Therefore, one has Osteoporosis if it is 2.5 SD or more below mean (−2.5 SD or lower). However, if the bone density is more than 2.5 SD below the mean, then the condition is regarded as severe Osteoporosis and thus presence of Osteoporotic.

Risk Factors for the Patient

The risk factors include the following:

· Age-  since the mentioned patient has reached age 60 and been examined for osteoporosis

· Gender- because the patient is a female and above the age of 50 then possibility of osteoporosis is very high.

· Ethnicity- this is the origin of the patient. White people are more likely to develop osteoporosis.

· Body weight - the weight of this patient is very low therefore she is at high risk of getting osteoporosis.

· History of broken bones – if the patient is at age 63 had has a wrist fracture; there is greater likelihood of getting osteoporosis.

· Medical history- where the patient had rheumatoid arthritis this increased the chances of her getting osteoporosis (Nieves, 2013).

Osteoporosis Treatment for the Patient

The following procedure will apply.

Bisphosphonates are recommended, and these may include Alendronate, Etidronate, and risedronate for secondary prevention of fragile osteoporotic structures as it is in this case. The treatment is mostly effective for patients between the age of 65 and 75 (Heaney, 2013).

Raloxifene is also recommended in certain specific cases where one is not able to comply with Bisphosphonates treatment.

Also, Teriparatide is used by this patient since she is 65 years old and also she had a wrist fracture in her history, and also her bone mass density is below -4 thus this medication will suit the patient( In Silverman, & In Abrahamsen, 2016). Intolerance to Bisphosphonates is as a result of esophageal ulceration, and this may allow the discontinuation of the medication. Though prevention should be preferred to cure, it is good to prevent this condition by engaging in a healthy diet which will help in bone straightening and reduce future occurrence of osteoporosis.

References

Alexander, I. M., & Knight, K. A. (2011). 100 questions & answers about osteoporosis and osteopenia. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Heaney, R. P. (2013). Calcium in the Treatment of Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, 1691-1700. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-415853-5.00072-8

In Silverman, S., & In Abrahamsen, B. (2016). The duration and safety of osteoporosis treatment: Anabolic and antiresorptive therapy.

Marcus, R., & Feldman, D. (2013). Editor’s Note. Osteoporosis, xxv. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-415853-5.11001-5

Nieves, J. W. (2013). Nonskeletal Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Fractures. Osteoporosis, 817-839. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-415853-5.00034-0

Steinberg, J. A., & Apter, A. J. (2014). Osteopenia and Osteoporosis. Comorbidities, Coexisting Conditions, and Differential Diagnosis, 345-366. doi:10.1093/med/9780199918065.003.0026

Moon, R. J., Cooper, C., & Harvey, N. C. (2016). Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Epidemiology. The Duration and Safety of Osteoporosis Treatment, 1-16. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23639-1_1

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