Neural Network - Free Paper Example

Published: 2023-11-25
Neural Network - Free Paper Example
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Biology Medicine Anatomy
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1784 words
15 min read


The specialised neural network is based on the mathematical model used for drum found on the human brain's neurons. The neural network's purpose is to process faces visually to easily enable easy detection and give the message of identification easily to the one who perceives it. However, the brain's neural network should not be interfered, as it offers a specialized neural network to perform face processing. In case when interrupted with, it develops some complications like Developmental prosopagnosia (D.P.), lack of brain plasticity, autism, and interference of the amygdala. The aim of this essay is to evaluate the seven studies provided, in order to assess the degree to which the evidence supports the notion that humans have a specialised neural structures dedicated to visually processing faces. This needs to go beyond merely summarising what is in the provided articles. I have also critically evaluated the evidence supporting this notion.

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Neural Networks

The specialised neural networks are dedicated to processing visual faces. It is because the neurons of the brains work well to overcome the complications (Hadjukhan, 2002). Some of the difficulties that develop and interfere with the neural network that can easily facilitate facial processing are Developmental prosopagnosia (D.P.), lack of brain plasticity, autism, and amygdala interference.

Developmental prosopagnosia is a condition caused by damage to ventral occipitotemporal regions ( Pierce, 2001). In this condition, the processing of images or the affected person's faces is always not processed because there is no connection among the brains' parts. The disease affects the images' perception due to the parts' affection, which does the same, and the details are mid-fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus IOG.

For a full illustration of how the developmental prosopagnosia has affected the people, we examined three patients with different levels (Hadjukhan, 2002). One of the patients suffered a head injury like seven years ago when in the adult stage and developed it. It was brought by face recognition deficit, which was facilitated and occurred due to the neurological disease loosened by the injury. The other two patients suffered injuries on their heads, as they were young and interfered with their brain plasticity. Besides, this clarifies, there is an abnormal inversion of the facial images that are processed.

Stimulus Manipulation

Furthermore, to determine the stimulus manipulation and perception of the images, a particular test was carried out to determine whether the patients' stimulus release was functioning. The test carried was preferred as F-test to assess the frequency of it been released by the brain (Hadjukhan, 2002). Besides, this test excluded the bloody low frequencies, the first and the second harmonics. The harmonics were not listed because the periodic signal that was not sinusoidal entirely will have an expression of sine wave sums. There are two or more statistical significance maps computed by the linear regression analysis in this experiment. The fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) signal modeling has been done as an impulse function of hemodynamic linear convolution. Amplitude activation for specified conditions is on estimation from the time of the fMRI course for the specified voxel. Its achievement is on the fixation of its signal model on observation.

The results came out after the test. They confirmed that the three patients' performance obtained from the tests carried fell with the normal range. The tests carried were based on Brenton Visual Form discrimination, which involved orientation of some subsets selected, including size, line length, and gap size. The face recognition test was conducted with the Warrington test of face recognition and Benton test of face recognition. Though the results obtained had a normal range, none of them showed face-selective activation. The lack of this activation for the prosopagnosia-conditioned patients reflects the critical difference from a selected population (Gauthier, 1999). Besides, the finding finalizes by consistently giving the hypothesis that the mid-fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus IOG, is essential in a network of brain functionality. The first prosopagnosia cases in patients are persistent with the pattern then illustrate an ostensible inability for other regions intact for face selections visual processing.

The human face's processing is at the point of focus where the human face's processing is arduous and difficult for people with autism conditions (Gauthier, 1999). It involves the people spending little time with people on eye conduct due to minimal interactions. The study of the human face with people in autism is significant because it brings a mere understanding of the social deficits and provides a unique opportunity to study experimental factors concerning normal functionalization of face processing. Besides, the persons living with these conditions spend less time face recognition and detection from the time they were born.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the responses of hemodynamic during face detection made a comparison between the adults with the condition of autism objects of control. Here, four regions of interest are manual to facilitate the same. The areas include the gyrus fusiform, temporal of inferior gyrus, temporal of middle gyrus, and amygdala (Pierce, 2001). They also revealed weak or no total fusiform gyrus activation to the autism condition patients. There was also a reduction in the activation of the amygdala and inferior occipital gyrus.

The amygdala plays a significant role in face recognition and perception. It shows and recognizes a face as of threat, monitoring gaze direction and reward value to establish stimuli. In normality, the amygdala works connected with the fusiform gyrus to help identify faces as the primary stimuli (Pierce, 2001). Despite the study of autism, when combined with the technology of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), it indicates that the fusiform gyrus is active consistently during face viewing of humans.

The groups' reaction accuracy was not accurate because there was no face perception by those with autism. Besides, the people with this condition see people with different faces perceiving different neural systems (Towler, 2016). In fusiform gyrus, the activation is seen in normality, suggesting the experimental factors to give them a role to play in the full development of the FFA.

Besides, the middle fusiform area activation process increases the expertise helping in the recognition of noble objects. In this sector, fMRI has been used to measure changes associated with increasing expertizing the brain areas for the face preference selected( Kanwisher, 1997). The experts acquired the noble objects led to an increase in the matching of the items.

The evidence-based from the specialization in the fusiform gyrus sectors came from the studies of neuropsychology and neuroimaging. Some tests done are to determine whether the activation process is accurate and legit. The studies carried showed that the inversion is more detrimental to face recognition than the objects (Gauthier, 1999). During the action of face recognition, the face will depend on a given object's utility. The results obtained from the tests carried above show that the brain is more in honor of face than object recognition. Besides, to get the products accurately, there must be the location of the region of interest, which will help in the face processing occurring most in the multiple studies. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session is in the subject to perform matching judgment sequentially.


After conducting the experiment and getting the results, they were on analysis. They gave an essential explanation of the fusiform face area FFA role in recognition of the object visualization (Dobel, 2008). The experiment implied that the inversion effect is obtained from the specified regions and detected altogether. Besides, the independent task results reveal that the activation will always increase with objects' selected expertise.

However, the area of the fusiform face is insufficient to facilitate the recognition of the face. It was carried out with a patient who they wanted to test for activation of looks with the patient D.F (Steeves, 2006). It also follows up by the patient whose brain damage acquired had a profound deficiency in recognizing an object and prosopagnosia undocumented up to date. The image functioning shown is like observers who offer more passively when showing face than in an area with images in the specified area consistently with fusiform face area. The control observers show an occipital face area. However, the D.F. seems to overlap the patients' occipital face area. The D.F. showed severe impairment in face processing at a higher level. They do not recognize the face directly (Steeves, 2006). It can also help differentiate the faces from non-faces' objects when given sufficient processing time. Besides, the D.F. can get the drum about configuring to help and sort out when the face category is presented in upright posture but not in sideways orientation when given that she also cannot provide discrimination half of the faces.

The test carried in this was done to a patient with a dense condition of prosopagnosia. The patient suffered from brain damage, which was on effect from when they got an accident, and carbon monoxide penetrated their brain. The patient has an extreme visual form with a deficit in recognizing an object—the D.F. experiences difficulty times during perception of the objects' quantity, shape, and orientation (Steeves, 2006). Significantly, D.F. only recognizes natural and real items, which are like fruits and more so vegetables basing the drum on the color and its texture. The D.F. patient recognizes only the faces familiar to them based on non-facial aspects like hair, voice, and stature.

For the fMRI investigation and data facilitation, some activities need to be in action to facilitate face image activation. They include the aspect of the stimuli, where the full details of fMRI can be found (Steeves, 2006). They base their argument on the face images, including the faces' colors of a certain number of selected people to experiment with appropriately. Each stimulus lasts for a period of like sixteen seconds and gives accurate results. They are repeatedly for like three or four times, depending on how the results need to be presented in a pseudo manner. In acquiring data, there was an exercise in conducting scans using imaging and functional images.


Thus, when the results were released, D.F. showed there was grouse diffusion in brain damage due to the condition of prosopagnosia (Steeves, 2006). The lesion is almost higher in the right hemisphere compared to the left one. In all this, viewing faces facilitated more Mickey Mouse production of activation inconsistent area and FFA rather than scene images. These results obtained from the test carried out helped in face categorization based on the color and its texture. It also gave an image description in free form. The trial enabled multiple categorizations of images in different classes and categories like vehicle, body parts, animals, faces, furniture, and words. The looks will never be recognized when in a sideways manner.

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