|Type of paper:||Argumentative essay|
The majority of people in search of peace after a conflict would prefer to talk to each other amicably and come to an understanding. The latter is not the case in the establishment of negative peace. Negative peace aims at establishing a non-violent situation, however, harshly changing the structural dynamics that resulted in the need for peace in the first place.
There are several primary peace overseers in any scenario. However, the person or organization tasked with peacekeeping can exasperate the conflict and violence with a single misstep. The citizens of a nation are the most paramount people in taking the responsibility to promote peace. Citizens' being direct influencers of the policies and actions of a group or person towards the other puts them in a better place to solve conflicts of any kind. Citizens are also responsible for setting in place governments to oversee their affairs and instilling the necessary reforms which can be used to govern them. Therefore, they are direct champions of their peace. Additionally, citizens can lobby for drastic changes and revolutionize any movements or action taken that does not promote peaceful coexistence among them.
Organizations partially participating in the promotion of peace without favoring any of the conflicting sides are usually better equipped to attaining their objective. These entail both humanitarian and transitional organizations. The opposite parties typically see these organizations as the partial side that can hear their grievances and devise a strategy aimed at arriving at an amicable resolution that does not entail loss of lives on either side. However, the peacemakers, in this case, must ensure they do not escalate the violent situation in any way through their actions. Acts seen to be favoring one of the conflicting sides can increase the tension even further and render the whole process futile. Also, governments are also the best peacemakers in situations. Governing bodies of a nation are given the mandate by the people of its republic to oversee their existence in harmony through the constitution of the land its different arms. The judicial and executive arms of the government can attain calmness and resolution of conflicts in several ways. The latter, however, is only conceivable if each arm of the government respects the mandate and powers awarded to the other.
Peace sometimes can be a progressive state. The steps in attaining it begin with the absence of war then followed by a change of the structural and fundamental factors that played a critical role from the beginning of the conflict. Citizens are better placed on attaining peace through movements. These movements can be mass protests against killings and aim to stop the violence growing in the society as a result of a disagreement. Protesting citizens means a halt to the activities that make a nation whole. This move can easily overthrow corrupt institutions that pit them against each other for their own selfish needs. Peace attained through movements drastically revolutionizes a country's governing structure and reasons behind warring.
Moreover, other movements can be established by citizens to lobby for peace without mass action. A good example is the use of the current technology to spread the word and inform each other of the ongoing atrocities that may result in violence. Information is power and; power gives one the luxury of being in control of their actions. In such cases, mobilization or influence of few elements in the society aiming to accelerate or start any violence is curbed. Additionally, these movements can establish peace through violence attacking the social and structural deficiencies that obstruct the presence of positive peace. Campaigning against these deficiencies is a clear sign that there is still war. It is just that the war is not directed to harming an individual but instead changing the fabrics with which the society is built. The unjust and unequal parameters that direct the few in the society to be better placed than others can be eliminated through violence against the established structures promoting their existence in the society. Thus peace is attained.
Peace is also a representation of both local and foreign actions. Through policies, the government can provide negative peace. However, these policies do not function the same way in the local capacity as they do at international/ foreign capacity. In a domestic perspective policy aimed at encouraging negative peace means a change to the structural establishments that infringes the rights of its citizens for the benefits of the few. These few "elite" in the society form the governing body most of the time. Therefore, the policies will be acting against their interests. Thus, local policies aimed at encouraging negative peace will have a hard time being established and implemented as they represent giving power to the minority in the society. In this case, the government would not be able to provide negative peace.
At the international level, establishing negative peace is possible. The government can develop stabilizing foreign policies which advocate for a ceasefire between two warring nations. The latter also includes no further pressing of the opponent through military action. Such policies prevent direct hostility towards an individual but still allow violence against the social and structural elements in the society that may discriminate one against the other. Through such policies, the cause of the conflict is not addressed, but peace has prevailed despite the existing hostility towards one party's opinion and beliefs differing from the others.
Power and cooperation play an essential role as components of peace. These two factors are intertwined in a manner that cooperation depends on what is expected by the other party with regards to power received. Thus, a balanced power in such cases results in immediate resolution and fosters cooperation among the involved parties in efforts to attain peaceful coexistence. Moreover, mutual understanding among the different parties is reached after the party's agreement on the best way forward to co-exist peacefully. Such expectations are only achieved by a specific balance of power among the involved parties. In some instances, cooperation is attained as a result of fear of power. A better-placed part, in this case, warrants the collaboration of the other party based on terms that favor them as power holders. Thus, the action of one party is influenced by the fear of the adverse effects that may arise from the actions of another party. However, to some extent power can change the dynamics of attaining peace to resolving to war. Increasing power of a particular group or nation always keeps the other groups in worry of the abuse of their power by infringing on their rights. Thus eliciting a response by an attempt to increase or share power by other groups. The latter can be the beginning of scuffles and result in violence.
Ethics in the society conceptualizes and defines what is considered to be right or wrong in the society based on the moral fabric and norms put in place. These beliefs influence a person's or society's perspective towards human dignity and respect of life. Therefore, ethical beliefs play a vital role in preventing violence against an individual. In the absence of violence and social harmony coexistence among different parties negative peace prevails. Negative peace can also be maintained so as not to erode the social norms that have governed the society for long. For example, children being born in a society that does not value ethics will grow into men believing that killing is justifiable. The latter will demand the establishment of negative peace where attacking individual(s) is prohibited yet other forms of violence aimed at changing the existing systems are permissible.
The national security of a nation is determined by the ability of military and other security state organizations in maintaining law and order at whatever cost. The military personnel prepare for the worst and know that a lot of sacrifices is required in attaining peace. Peace, in this case, is absolute follow of the established laws and orders. Therefore, lobbying for absolute conflict resolution through positive peace is viewed as a weakness. Such development can result in the US versus THEM beliefs causing further antagonism and violence between the involved sides. Thus, giving room for the emergence of negative peace where direct violence is prohibited but the firm views of the national security agencies and the "rebellious" groups persists.
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