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For the third component of the Session Long Project, write a 2- to 3-page essay in which you begin to discuss the spread of the data that you have been collecting by:

1) Compute the variance of the measurements that you have taken so far. Show your work.

2) Compute the standard deviation of the measurements that youve taken so far. Show your work.

3) Discuss the spread of the data you have been collecting. Be sure to describe the variance of distribution and the concept of standard deviation as a measure of dispersion in your response.

Descriptive Statistics Part II: Central Tendency and Variability


According to a research by Dr. Richard Simmons, exercising has a positive effect on body by burning the calories. Additionally, he states that the more exercises an individual does in a day, the more calories is burnt. Therefore, the main idea of the research paper is to check out the validity of Dr. Simmons hypothesis that exercises lead to burning of calories. The participants did aerobic exercises with the maximum duration of 17 minutes per day within 10 days. They were instructed about which exercises should be done and how to do them and each day they were required to fill the scores of time spent exercising. In order to improve the validity of the experiment, the researcher chose participants of both genders to exercise within 10 days on a daily basis.

Data from the study

1) Compute the variance of the measurements taken in Module 1 SLP.

Scores of time spent while exercising

Day Work out time X XX-X(X-X)21 12 16 -4 16

2 13 16 -3 9

3 15 16 -1 1

4 17 16 1 1

5 18 16 2 4

6 20 16 4 16

7 15 16 -1 1

8 17 16 1 1

9 16 16 0 0

10 17 16 1 1

Mean16 50

Median16.5 Variance (X-X)2/nMode17 =50/10=5


or in Excel = Var( )

2) Compute the standard deviation of the measurements taken in Module 1 SLP.

Standard deviation=2.2

Standard deviation, (X-X)2/n=5=2.24

or in Excel = STDEV( )

3) Findings

Dispersion and square root from dispersion, named standard deviation, characterize mean deviation from the mean value of selection. Among these two data points, the most essential value has the standard deviation. This value can be presented as AV distance where middle elements of selection are shown. Speaking about Dispersion, it is rather difficult to interpret it. However, a square root from this value is standard deviation and basically this is the way to understand it.

Standard deviation shows that people that were involved in exercising with the average of 16 +/- (2,4/2) [17.2 (red); 14.8 (green)] minutes in a day. Values are within the limits of possible norm.

Standard deviation from basic data

2.4 minutes is not a critical number for duration of exercising. But this number reflects peoples tiredness and motivation with interest to be engaged in exercises.

Putting in order data, we see that a row is up-diffused on the normal law of distribution.

Distribution of data curve

It follows from this that we can forecast the mean time of duration of exercises. Probably a man will be exercising for 15 or 17 minutes a day depending on a mood and other factors. Data on graphics coincide with calculations. In the end it is clear that the approximate middle value is (16 minutes) with a rejection in 2 minutes. For more complete estimation it is necessary to increase a selection.


Dispersion is this unsystematic rejection of estimations, caused by casual factors or individual preferences. Standard deviation provides the researcher with the idea about the variation of results rounded to a mean value. By means of dispersion and standard deviation it is possible to forecast the expected levels of values. Also, we can see that extraneous factors influence the duration of exercises. Such for example as: work-load at work, household chores, children, laziness.

According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, you need to do two types of physical activity each week to improve your healthaerobic and muscle-strengthening.

Adults need at least [1]:

2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity (i.e., brisk walking) every week and

muscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days a week that work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms).

According to the WHO adults aging 1864 should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity [7].

At the increase of duration and intensity of exercises, the amount of the burned calories increases. As a result, a man (other things being equal) will lose weight more efficiently and become more healthy.


Center for Diseases control and prevention-CDC. (2014). How much physical activity do adults need? Retrieved May 15, 2015, from

Cook A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Basic Skills in Statistics: A Guide for Healthcare.

Michelson, S. & Schofield, T. (2002). Chapter 1: Description. Measures of Central Tendency In: The Biostatistics Cookbook: The Most User-Friendly Guide for the Bio/Medical Scientist. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Norman, G., and Streiner, D. (2008). Biostatistics: The Bare Essential (3rd ed.). BC Decker Inc. PMPH USA, Ltd. Shelton, CT.

Sundaram KR, Dwivedi SN, Sreenivas V. Medical statistics principles and methods. 1st ed. New Delhi, India: BI Publications Pvt Ltd; 2010.

Petrie A, Sabin C. Medical statistics at a glance. 3rd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.

Physical Activity and Adults. Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18 - 64 years. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from


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