Management Essay Example: Definition, Functions, Managerial Roles and More

Published: 2022-03-11
Management Essay Example: Definition, Functions, Managerial Roles and More
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Management
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1753 words
15 min read

Definition of Management

Management refers to the process of attaining the organization's objective by working with human, financial, and physical organization resources (George, 2009). It also relates to a method of solving problems to efficiently achieve organization goals by efficient utilization of scarce resources within a changing environment. Harold defines management as art that creates an environment where people can perform and co-operate to achieve the goals of a group (2010). The functions of management are often indicated as planning, leading, organizing, and controlling. At times, management includes gathering, analyzing, and storing information for the organization knowledge development process.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

Any organization comprises of employees who undertake particular work functions. The categorization of employees depends on their duties or status. Concerning status, a distinction emerges between managerial and non-managerial staff. For example, within the Finance department that plans, organizes, audits, and accounts for organization finances, the Chief Finance Officer is the manager while the bookkeeper is a non-managerial staff. These two status are contrasted in terms responsibilities, supervisory duty, workload and whether they are exempt positions or not (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). First, a manager's responsibility extends to an entire team or division. A manager oversees the development of organization objectives, programs, policies, and operation budgets. The manager then organizes employees in teams tasked with specific duties, directs and controls their functions to ensure they deliver within a given scope. He also acts as the liaison between his department and upper management. In comparison, a non-manager works as a productive member within a department and not primarily as the team leader. He implements the set objectives and policies and receives directions from the manager. He is responsible for his work, and his interactions are limited within the department.

About workload, a manager ordinarily uses most of his time supervising other employees and ensuring that they deliver on their workload. The manager is also involved in making critical decisions concerning work processes as well as analyzing the work of others. As a supervisor, a manager will perform tasks such as employee selection, performance evaluation, and monitoring work output (George, 2009). A non-manager's workload is task-oriented. A specific task is typically assigned with a clear job description and desired output. Though a non-manager may act as a team leader, his position is not usually supervisory but more of team building. Finally, the position of a manager is considered to be exempt meaning that work done overtime is not compensated though it attracts a higher salary and perks (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). Most non-managerial roles are non-exempt, they are admissible to overtime pay, and compensation is done with hourly wages.

Based on the definitions provided it emerges that management is a process geared towards the achievement of a goal. The process involves mobilization of organization resources. The result of the process is an efficient use of limited resources, direction, order, and a measure of control in the organization. Though there is a distinction between managers and non-managers based on their status, each one of has a specific and integral function to play in the management process.

Types of Managerial Skills

Managerial skill refers to the personal ability that a manager puts into use to achieve a particular organization goal. Regardless of the kind of organization a manager is leading; his role requires a mix of skills that include technical, human, and conceptual skills (George, 2009). Conceptual skills detail the ability to visualize the organization as a functioning whole rather than units. In other words, a manager with conceptual skills can realize how various groups and functions of an organization connect with each other in the achievement of set goals (George, 2009). The abilities are essential in identifying the existing relationship networks that connect the different functions of the company as well as external forces that impact on the business (Koontz, 2010). Mid-level managers can use conceptual skills in developing strategies that promote interrelationships between departments. For example in designing a procurement strategy to ease the flow of work between the Finance and Production departments.

Human skills are essential in promoting cooperation among workers to achieve unity of purpose and chain of command. The capabilities include the capacity to resolve a conflict of interest and shape opinion among workers. Human skills also include the ability to motivate and offer leadership to teams and actively communicate with employees. A manager who utilizes these behavioral competencies can develop a good rapport with those he supervises, and maintain cordial interpersonal relationships (George, 2009).

Technical skills refer to specialized know-how of a particular method, process or a technique in management. Such competence includes knowledge of different jobs in a company, their descriptions, and the chronology of steps required in performing them (Koontz, 2010). These type of skills are more beneficial to managers at the low level of management and increasingly less critical at the top. An outpatient supervisor in a hospital, for example, must be aware of the all outpatient health services provided and be able to carry out any of the specific medical procedure he supervises.

Management Efficiency and Effectiveness

Managerial efficiency refers to the fraction of the total organization resources that go into productivity during the production process (Cameron, 2010). The lower the portion, the less efficient the management is. The more the resources used up in the production process, the more the efficiency. Managers can be effective but not efficient at the same time and vice versa. Management effectiveness is measured by the ability of the organization to attain its set goals (Cameron, 2010). When management achieves the organization objectives, it is effective but if they do so by wasting a lot of resources, then arguably the administration is not efficient. In comparison, if a particular command is very efficient by utilizing its resources sparely only to miss the achievement of organization goals, then it becomes ineffective.

Every organization seeks to grow and enhance the efficiency of their operation's production process. Since organizations find themselves working with limited resources such as technology, time, budgets and staff, they would prefer to make the best use of each of them. However, a choice to pursue efficiency at times translates into an opportunity cost for achieving effectiveness. The management solution then becomes pursuing the right goals while being efficient. For example, in a car sales company, it's possible to evaluate the management efficiency and effectiveness of marketing as a company activity. The activity process in marketing may involve running media advertisements that would lead to increased showroom visits and hopefully boost car sales. If the adverts lead to improved customer visit to the company showroom that is considered management efficiency. However, if the showroom visits are not turning to actual car sales which are the objectives of the marketing department, then there is no management effectiveness. This way a manager can examine whether the marketing employees are efficient in carrying out their task but lack effectiveness.

Roles of Managers According to Mintzberg Research

A role is defined as the standard expected behavior of a person occupying a particular position in an organization. Henry Mintzberg acknowledged that any manager performs ten direct roles classified as interpersonal, informational, and decision making tasks.

In playing the interpersonal role, the manager interacts with both internal and external stakeholders as a figurehead, a leader, and a liaison. The position that a manager occupies as the head of a department or the overall organization head makes him a symbol. In that case, the figurehead conducts activities that are ceremonial which include meeting high profile clients and gracing the company's social events. Leadership is the most significant role of a manager since it provides the guidance and inspiration needed by employees to perform their duties. As a liaison officer, the manager acts as the link between the organization and its external stakeholders to ensure sustainable cordial relationships.

The informational role of the manager involves managing internal and external communication. Mintzberg maintains that when it comes to handling information, a manager acts as a monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. As a monitor, the manager gathers information on factors that potentially affect the organization. Such information feeds into the decision-making process and planning. The manager also disseminates the info gathered to subordinates especially on emerging issues. Being a spokesperson is a two-way practice that includes representing subordinates concerns to superiors, and articulating issue to aides on behalf of upper management.

In the decisional role, the manager acts as the entrepreneur, conflict manager, resource allocator, and negotiator. As an entrepreneur, the manager assumes risks that may arise out of any outward looking actions by aligning organization processes with the environment desires. Conflicts disturb the normal operation of a business which requires the intervention of the manager to control the disturbance factors. Realizing that organizations work in an environment where resources are limited, the manager plays a resource allocator role. This role involves the mobilization of material and non-material resources and setting priorities for allocation and utilization of those resources. Finally, the manager acts as the negotiator to balance the competing interest of groups such as customers, staff, and suppliers with those of the organization.

Management Functional Areas

Planning and decision-making are primary functions of a manager. Planning is short-term or long-term forward-looking procedure in which a manager determines actions to be undertaken, when and by whom (Collings & Mellahi 2009). In planning, a manager first sets an objective depending on the desired outcome before selecting a course of action (George, 2009). He then formulates policy and translates it into a program of work for achieving the objective. The manager allocates human and non-human resources to the program and sets performance standards and procedures. At all the stages, decision-making plays a complementary role and has forward and backward feedback mechanisms.

Organizing refers to the process of establishing harmony between authority and responsibilities among organization members. This process involves creating an organizational structure with defined positions and duties. The structure provides a framework for collaboration among workers and creates internal order. Organizing allows the manager to create a link between material and human resources in an enterprise (Collings & Mellahi 2009). In organizing, the manager begins by identifying the activities necessary in achieving the set goals. Next, the supervisor groups the activities into units based on convenience and a logical combination. The result is that repetition of work and duplication of outcome is limited.

In leading and influencing the personnel, the functional process involves staffing and directing. In staffing role, the manager assigns enough qualified staff to all positions in the organization. The manager begins by developing a human resource plan, he conducts recruitment, manages the selection, oversees the on...

Cite this page

Management Essay Example: Definition, Functions, Managerial Roles and More. (2022, Mar 11). Retrieved from

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism