Literary Essay Sample: Comparison between Book 3 and Book 22 of Homer's The Iliad

Published: 2022-09-08
Literary Essay Sample: Comparison between Book 3 and Book 22 of Homer's The Iliad
Type of paper:  Term paper
Categories:  Literature Homer
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1474 words
13 min read

One of the famous writings of Homer is The Illiad. The Iliad is composed of 24 books. They are part of the Greek oral narratives which it is content is in the form of a cyclic pattern. That suggests that book 1 has a lot of similar features with book 24, book 23 writing styles resembles of book 2 and book 3 as similarity with book 22. Such a character is vital since it helps to make the story memorable. Hence, due to the cyclic structure Book, 3 and book of Homer have similarities regarding use of figurative language to explain the significant scenes in the books, themes, and, the main characters. However, due to the change of storyline the two books have unique features that set boundaries within them. The focus is emphases on the books is the ideal Greek and Trojan characters with the engagement of goodness where Aphrodite intervene to save the Trojan fighter in the duel between Menelaus and Paris in the book 3 and book 22, Athene assisted in killing Trojan fighter in the duel between Hektor and Achilles.

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Figurative language-similes

Figurative language is any figure of speech in a literature material that does not depend on literal meaning instead on non- literal sense of some or all of the words utilized. Similes of the common figurative language between book 2 and book 23

Examples of metaphors in book 2 are the first simile: "Cacophonous sound of Trojans like the Pygmies were always in battle with the Cranes'' (Iliad3. 5. 3-4) and second simile: "dust of the two armies, like the mist that is the bane of shepherds and better for thieves than nightfall'' (Iliad3. 10. 4.5). These similes were used to describe how Trojan was prepared to approach the battle with fury to take the honor of winning.

Hector stands as the only Trojan left outside. Troy too shared to join the other Trojans in their retreat because of his previous orders for them to camp outside every through Priam him to come inside. The toward the town with might and he ran magnificently like a racing chariot horse that holds its forms at full stretch on the pain, so light-footed Achilles held the pace. And aging Priam was the first to see him sparkling on the plain bright as that star in the autumn rising whos unclouded rays shine out amid a crowd of stars at dusk. (Iliad 22,510. 26-37)

These similes have been used in book 22 to describe the way Achilles runs by comparing it with the fastest object in reality such as racing host chariot, a star that is so bright and sparkling. By use of similes, the author managed to demonstrate the mightiness of Achilles run. Homer uses similes in both plots to spark the reader imagination and to be able to see the scene in the head and to involve to be part of the happenings.


Theme forms massive similarities between the books. Both books discuss topics of conflict, mortality, revenge, and, love and friendship. However, the theme of love and friendship is the is the one fully revealed in both scenes.

Love and friendship

The power of love and friendship as explored in the two books is the key origin of the conflict; the major types of love depicted in the two plots are romantic love, parental love, and, the friendship between warriors.

The theme of love and friendship in book 22

The plot of the book 22 is about the fight between the Greek and Trojan fighters Achilles and Hektor. The two are friends, but hatred and desire for revenge for the death of Patroklos in Achilles makes him want to kills Hektor. Moreover, both warriors, but Achilles is stronger than Hektor as the father of Hektor knew as much as Hektor intends to confront Achilles he will be killed. Due to fatherly love, he told Hektor, " My beloved child, do not wait for the attack of this man alone, away from the others, you might encounter your destiny beaten down by Pealon since he is far stronger than you are '' (Iliad3.35, 1-5). Apart from warning his beloved son, he also foreshadowing the death of his son, further, due to parent love for her son Hertor, she seconds the further of Hertor by soothing to obey his father's command and quit the fight and at the same time telling him it would be painful to witness his (Hertor) death (Iliad3, 85. 1-5). Besides, it is because of friendship love that made Achilles want to back off from attacking Hetrok, but since the between him, Pealon was strong than his with Hetrok that is what pushed him to pursue with the idea of killing Hetrok

The theme of love and friendship in Book 3

However, in the plot of book 3, the main theme discussed in the theme of romantic love, the fight between Menelaus, Helene's wife and Paris brother of Hetrok has largely been triggered with a desire to win and secure the most beautiful woman in the world world-Hellen. Because the oath they made before indulging into war proved that the fight war over Hellen. Paris commented that a duel between him and Menelaos would take place, the winner will get Helen, and the spoils of war and the armies need not fight. This scene proves that the main underlying the fight is a quest for revenge that is why Menelaos told Paris that ''you would teach of the man whose blossoming wife you have taken'' (Iliad3.50.5) While Paris compares Menelaos to a snake to express his hatred.

What it is ironical this how Paris convinces Trojans for due with Menelaos and backs off because he is a coward and not a good warrior to set a worth contest with Menelaos. Funny enough is now he commits himself by participating on the oath-taking and yet he knew it is hard to him to win the batter and much as Trojans want him, he responded to the warning message by asserting how he hurts Trojan for thinking him as scared (Iliad3.110, 3)Similarities in the concept of the goddess

One of the striking similarities between the two books is the role of female goodness plays in the two-fight battle. Aphrodite is one of the chief characters in the book 3 and Athene in the book 22. Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and the goddess of magnificence and love, war, and, she is full of wisdom. By giving goodness in both scene role of intervening in time of tragedy, shows that the books were based from a culture that believed that fate of human being was in the hands of the goddess, who have supernatural powers to decide the fate of one.

The difference in the concept of the goddess

Despite the fact goddess, intervene in both cases. However, the action of the goddess differed. In Book 3, the goddess aid the Trojans fighter by the name Paris, hence he escaped death, "He turned and made again for his man, determined to kill him with the bronze spear. But Aphrodite caught up Paris easily, since she was divine, and wrapped him in a thick mist and set him down again in his perfumed bedchamber." (Iliad 3.379-382) But in the fight between Trojan fighter and Achilles in the book 22, the goodness decided to side with the Greek warrior and assisted him to kill Trojans fighter. The whole idea of the Iliad rotates on the anger of Achilles. For instance, if Paris would have ended up died, it would be impossible to resolute anger in Achilles. Therefore, goddess helped Achilles to kill Hektor to help him relieve his pain. By tricking him that he would help him in the battle, but he ended up unharmed and claimed that" Here, at last, the gods have summoned me deathward. I thought Deiphobos the hero was here close beside me, but he is behind the wall and it was Athene cheating me, and now evil death is close to me, and no longer far away, and there is no way out." Iliad 22.297-301. The death of the Hektor is the loss of honor to Trojan side by the Trojans and the end of unresolved anger by Achilles as the main idea of the Iliad.


Comparison between book 3 and book 23 of Homer Iliad, gives the general overview of the entire layout of the Iliad, it helps in understanding more Geek culture of that era. Homer's Iliad is one of the significant sources to study the history of Greek. From the analysis of the similarities and difference of book 3 and book 23, one can assert the most treasured themes in Greek and Trojans culture are themes of love, hate, revenge, family, friendship, and, goodness. Despite the distinctive difference between the two main characters in both books, there is still present of a similar format of how the fights were organized and how significant was the duty of the goodness in that era

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