Free Essay. I/O Architecture

Published: 2023-04-05
Free Essay. I/O Architecture
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Information technologies Electronics
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 889 words
8 min read

The inlets and outlets define the input and output architectural design of the computer. A computer system is a feeding program with the ability to get information into the system and out of it. This implies that there is a mode of communication that takes place between different segments of a computer. There are different kinds of environments that include external and internal. The external environment conveys messages from without the computer to the inside through a particular process. Both the internal and external environments of the computer consist of its system.

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Peripherals are devices that connect the computer system. They mainly connect and process data using different commands from the CPU. The CPU is the central processing zone of a computer. They read information as the command desires as well as transform them accordingly (Saini, Sayal, & Rawat, 2016). Some of these devices include the keyboard, mouse, display units, printers, flash discs, and mobile phones. Among the peripheral devices, there are different kinds which are; input peripherals, output peripherals, and input-output peripherals.

Input peripherals allow the transfer of information from the outside to the inside. These include a mouse, keyboard and the like output peripherals, on the other hand, provide for the transfer of data from inside the computer to the outside (Saini et al., 2016). Examples include monitors, printers, and the like. Lastly, there are input-output peripherals which are both ways. Such devices allow for the transfer of information both inside and outside the computer. An example of such a device is the touch screen.

Input and output architecture also has interfaces, which is a boundaries shared among two different aspects of the computer system. The interfaces attach more than two components to the computer system for communication. A computer has two types of interfaces; the I/O interface and the CPU interface. The Input-Output Interface is peripherals that are linked to a computer system and require a special connection to the CPU for communication purposes. There are unique components of hardware in a computer system that connect the CPU and other peripherals which connect and manage the input-output transfers (Saini et al., 2016). Due to their primary role of providing communication between processor files and buses, they are referred to us input-output interface units. The devices offer a formula of conveying messages between internal systems and input-output devices. There are different modes of I/O data transfer which include Programmed I/O Interrupt Initiated I/O and Direct Memory Access.

Programmed I/O Instructions

These result from the I/O instructions that the computer program conveys. The item of data sends information that is started by some of the instructions within the program (Prabhat & Koziol, 2014). The program usually controls the transfer of data between the CPU and peripherals. The CPU carries out regular monitoring of the peripherals.

Interrupt Initiated I/O

This I/O method is programmed, and the CPU stays in the loop of the program till the I/O indicates that it is ready for the transfer of data. The process, however, consumes a lot of time and makes the processor busy for no apparent reason (Prabhat & Koziol, 2014). Engaging Interrupt Initiated I/O can solve this problem. In this process, the interface decides when the peripheral is ready to transfer data and creates an interrupt. The CPU then stops the task after it has received the signal that is processing (Prabhat & Koziol, 2014). The processor then services the I/O transfer before returning to its processing task.

Direct Memory Access

This is a procedure that involves the removal of the CPU from the way and making the peripheral device to control the bus memory to improve the transfer speed (Chaudhary, 2018). Most hardware systems, like disk drive controllers and network cards, use DMA for their functions.

The I/O architecture is a vital aspect of computer studies that makes use of the different input and output methods to perform its functions. There are wide varieties of software materials that are composed in this vital system (Saini et al., 2016). Learning the various input and output systems enhances knowledge which is essential in the transfer of information from one system to the other (Prabhat & Koziol, 2014). Most of the technological devices land under such category and are critical in learning the working of computer-based electronic devices.

The computer system is essential in studying electronic gadgets that are currently used to perform commands that were mainly for computers. The understanding of such operating systems helps the learner understand how a garget as small as a Smartphone or a tablet can perform commands similar to that of a computer. Electronic gadgets have been modified to handle even smaller software that a computer cannot control. Computers are therefore not limited to large and almost importable devices but have been shrunk down to smaller gargets with the ability to perform computer commands. By use of more output devices, a small electronic/computer device can be made to accommodate the software, except for a minimized memory.


Chaudhary., H. (2018). Hands-on Computer Architecture 1500+ MCQ E-Book: Handy E-Book Series for All I.T Exams & Interviews. FL: BEST SELLER ON GOOGLE PLAY IN JOB HUNTING.

Prabhat, & Koziol, Q. (2014). High-Performance Parallel I/O. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Saini, H. S., Sayal, R., & Rawat, S. (2016). Innovations in Computer Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the Third ICICSE, 2015. Basingstoke, England: Springer.

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