1. In a situation of fertilization, this involves a male and a female sex cell coming together to form a zygote that takes place in the meiosis forming a cell that is unique in its DNA. The gene created is different, and with time, it gets to combine with other forms of genes creating a prophase one that is different from any other. The combination of each gamete that is contains 46 chromosomes that are different, making them different from others.
2. Over time, conditions tend to change, making the organisms to change and get to evolve with time, creating a new combination of the population. This change can make the fact that there is stress, which increases the rate of recombination frequency, which is directly related to the nutrients stress (Gordo & Campos, 2008).
3. To determine whether it is meiosis or mitosis, we determine if the individual cells are either diploid cells or haploid cells. Diploid cells explain that it is mitosis, which is characterized by the presence of 2 cells in which each has around 23 chromosomes giving a total of 46 from both female and male. Haploid cells represent meiosis and four cells, which can either be a sex cell.
4. (1) Amount of temperature
Temperature the critical contributor to of stress for yeasts CITATION Con16 \l 1033 (Control and regulation of the cellular responses to cold shock: the responses in yeast and mammalian systems , 2016). It is common to find yeast growing in cold areas, which mainly range between 50 degrees and 6o degrees, but when the temperatures are at freezing point, then the growth will be unstable. For yeast to grow there are three key stages that they pass through.
- Stage 1: Transcription and translation waves
- Stage 2: Combination of ribosomes
- Stage 3: Increasing the components through the folding up of protein
(2) Very High Gravity (VHG).
VHG entails the process of application of stress on the yeast. This factor has made it challenging to obtain a product such as beer because it may contain the DNA of the cell. The introduction of the stress leads to a situation where the fermentation will increase at a faster rate, and this will lead to a situation where the flavor and the sugar will be converted into ethanol that can be used in brewing (Powell, 2016).
5. What is the impact of not controlling temperatures when brewing?
6 .In a situation when yeast is added at cold temperatures, it is expected that the taste and the smell will be much pleasant as compared when introduced at warmer temperatures. It increases the rate of fermenting the beer and this confirms the fact that at the freezing point the yeast goes to a state of instability and the chance of the beer being standard will be minimal because fermentation was not optimal CITATION Con16 \l 1033 (Control and regulation of the cellular responses to cold shock: the responses in yeast and mammalian systems , 2016). At what temperature is fermentation optimal?
7. Experimental versus a control group - The control group is the brewer while the experiment group is a batch that has not been at the optimum temperature
- Dependent variable - Aroma and the taste of the beer
- Independent variable - Temperature
- Standardized variables - Other substances
- Adequate replication/sample size - 1 gallon
- Materials and methods -water, stovetop, spoon, boiling pot and recipe (Everything should be same for both)
8. The result expected is that the beer will have a great taste and a pleasant aroma since they were all set in same conditions and also the temperatures that they were subjected to were the ideal temperatures needed for fermenting
When the temperatures are below the freezing point, the yeast becomes dormant, and therefore there will be no proper fermentation consequently it will have a bad taste since some of the flavors will be from the beer which was from the yeast that was not fully fermented and a disgusting aroma.
9. If the yeast could be able to ferment in cold temperatures, then it would be possible to create a variety of beer due to the fact one can either choose the temperature to subject it to give a specific aroma and taste the process of brewing would improve due to an increased variety.
Control and regulation of the cellular responses to cold shock: the responses in yeast and mammalian systems. (2016). Retrieved from National Institute of Health: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1513281/
Hoefnagles, M. (2015). Biology Concepts and Investigation. McGraw-Hill Education.
Powell, C. (2016). Yeast stress when fermenting at high gravity-Sources, damage and the cellular response. Retrieved from World Brewing Congress: http://www.worldbrewingcongress.org/congress/Abstracts/Pages/026.aspx
Temperature Factors. (2016). Retrieved from How to brew: http://howtobrew.com/book/section-1/fermentation/temperature-factors
Sex and Deleterious Mutations, 2008 Genetics, 179(1), 621-626. Gordo, I., & Campos, P. R. A. http://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.108.086637
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