Inorganic substances include metals, salts and substances that are made from single elements as well as other compounds that do not carbon that is bonded to hydrogen. Some inorganic molecules or substances contain carbon as one of the leading components. One of the most essential of these elements is the Titanium metal which can be alloyed with other elements like vanadium, aluminium and iron to form other strong compounds that can be used in various construction projects. Titanium metal is an essential mineral that contains convenient properties like low density, high tensile strength, low melting point, strength and resistance all of which make it an essential metal for various engineering projects.
Characteristics of Titanium Metal
Titanium (Ti) metal is an inorganic compound that is normally found in the oxide or elemental forms. According to Songa et al., (2017) inorganic compounds are the type of compounds that normally incorporate two or more chemical elements. The elements are combined in definite proportions to form new compounds. The metal naturally occurs in a combined state and is a characteristic that is constituent of metamorphic as well as igneous sediments and rocks derived from them. Titanium appears as a dark grey metallic element with atomic weight 47.86 and atomic number 22 on the periodic table.
Metal Extraction Process
The extraction of Titanium metal is completed by the batch process. The elements of Titanium metal, mainly ilmenite and rutile are normally treated with carbon together with Chlorine gas to create titanium tetrachloride. The following equation signifies the reaction:
The metal Titanium tetrachloride can be purified by the process of distillation at a boiling point of 164 and this removes the chloride. The reaction of purified titanium tetrachloride in reaction with molten magnesium and this leads to the creation of a porous form of Titanium sponge. The following equation shows the reaction of the metals:
Discovery of the Metal
According to Kaur & Singh, (2019) the Titanium metal was discovered in the year 1791 by William Gregor and its name was derived from sons of the goddess of the earth in Greek mythology by the name Titan. Although the metal was first discovered by William Gregor in the year 1791, it was first isolated in the year 1910 when the methods and the technologies for such extraction were invented. In the beginning, Gregor, who was an amateur chemist as well as a cornish vicar isolated the impure form of the metal in the formulae FeTiO3. He performed the treatment of the metal with the H2SO4 and HCl compounds (Shena, et al., 2019). With a melting point of 1670 degrees and a boiling point of 3287 degrees, the metal has a density of 4.506 and has no known biological role though ti is suspected to be a carcinogenic compound.
What makes Titanium Metal so Useful?
Titanium is an essential metal in construction and the creation of new materials and innovations. Not only is it the second most abundant metal on earth but it also has excellent resistance to corrosion, it has a high rate of efficiency to heat transfer and also has above average strength to weight ratio (Shena, et al., 2019). Although Titanium is a strong metal, it has less density compared to steel. The metal, therefore, acts as a strong alloying agent and reacts with many forms of metals including iron, molybdenum and aluminium. According to Hoa et al., (2018) such alloys are normally mainly used in the missiles, spacecraft and aircraft industries due to their ability to withstand high temperatures and their relatively low densities.
How is the Metal used?
The metals are normally used in laptops, crutches, clubs, and bicycles. Titanium metal is used in making power pipes for power pipe condensers due to their resistance to corrosion. Moreover, the metal has the right level of resistance to corrosion in seawater and therefore it is used in the process of distillation in water processing plants. Moreover, it is used in the protection of hulls of submarines, ships as well as other structures exposed to the seawater. Titanium metal can be combined with Aluminium and Vanadium to give it up to four times the strength of steel with only half the weight of the same metal (Songa et al., 2017). Despite the metal having a high rate of resistance to corrosion, it has a high tensile strength that makes it ideal for high strength construction projects.
Titanium and Surgery
According to Shena, et al., (2019) Titanium metal reacts well with internal body parts like the bone and therefore can be used in the surgical process of joint replacement. This is normally done especially in situations where the patient requires hip bone replacement as well as tooth implants (Koizumia et al., 2019). The greatest use of the Titanium metal manifests in the form of titanium (IV) oxide which is normally used as a house paint pigment, the manufacture of plastic, paper, paint, and enamels. Titanium stands in as the 9th most abundant of all elements in the crust of the earth. Additionally, it has a low density of about 60 per cent the amount of iron. Therefore the metal is highly efficient in all kinds of engineering projects (Suna et al., 2019). The metal is however specialised and can only be used for specific types of engineering projects.
Titanium primarily occurs as silicotitanates, titanates and oxides. It is normally associated with hematite and magnetite and can constitute a considerable proportion of such deposits (Hayat et al., 2019). Amorphous titanium normally manifests in the form of dark grey powder and the fused metal resembles polished steel (Hoa et al., 2018). Whenever the metal is cold, it is very brittle in form, meaning it breaks easily. However, when the metal is heated it can be drawn into wire. The metal is a prominent structural metal.
According to Songa et al., (2017) the history of the metal dates back to the early 20th century when the metal and its alloys were developed. The metal is currently a structural metal. The metal is strong and light meaning that the ration of strength and weight is positive enough to sustain mechanical damage (Koizumia et al., 2019). Titanium is soluble in sulphuric acids, HF and HCl.
Overall, Titanium metal is a good reflector as well as uses in infrared radiation and therefore it is used in solar observatories that experience poor visibility due to heat (Hayat et al., 2019). Titanium use is prevalent in the manufacture of sunscreens because of its preventive characteristic of keeping the Ultraviolet rays of the sun from reaching the skin. When applied to the skin, the nanoparticles of Titanium (IV) oxide normally seem invisible. Titanium metal remains expensive due to the complex method used in the extraction process. The human immune system has a high ability in ignoring the Titanium metal in the body. Moreover, the high ability for the metal to resist corrosion makes it ideal for the formation of parts for metal implants during surgery.
Hayat, M., Singh, H., Hea, Z., & Caob, P. (2019). Titanium metal matrix composites: An overview. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 121(1), 418-438. doi.org/10.1023/a:1011026900989
Hoa, J., Mahajana, J., Taylor, M., Byers, A., Arauza, P., & Kwon, Y.-M. (2018). Metallosis in cemented titanium alloy total knee arthroplasty without apparent metal-on-metal articulation. The Knee, 25(4), 728-731. doi: 10.1016/j.knee.2018.04.013
Kaur, M., & Singh, K. (2019). Review on titanium and titanium-based alloys as biomaterials for orthopedic applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 102(2), 844-862. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.064.
Koizumia, H., Takeuchic, Y., Imaie, H., Kawaif, T., & Yoneyamaa, T. (2019). Application of titanium and titanium alloys to fixed dental prostheses. Journal of Prosthodontic Research, 63(3), 266-270. doi: 10.1016/j.jpor.2019.04.011
Shena, X., Zhanga1, Y., Maa, P., Sutrisnoa, L., Luo, Z., Hua, Y., et al. (2019). Fabrication of magnesium/zinc-metal organic framework on titanium implants to inhibit bacterial infection and promote bone regeneration. Biomaterials, 212(1), 1-16.doi. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.05.008
Songa, Y., Jianga, J., Maa, J., Pang, S.-Y., Luoa, C., & Qina, W. (2017). Oxidation of inorganic compounds by aqueous permanganate: Kinetics and initial electron transfer steps. Separation and Purification Technology, 187(7), 350-357.doi. 10.1016/j.seppur.2017.04.015
Suna, J., Dalirib, A., Lud, G., Ruand, D., & Lve, Y. (2019). Tensile failure of fiber-metal-laminates made of titanium and carbon-fiber/epoxy laminates. Materials & Design, 1(1), 108139.doi. 10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108139.
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