Industrialization in Britain was first witnessed in early the early 18th century. It began with the textile industry because there was insufficient arable land. After a while, the country mechanized and this facilitated agricultural revolution and increased food production. The increase in agricultural production caused an increase in population and opened a transition window for manufacturing industries in the late 18th century and early 19th century. While many factors made England the first country to industrialize, the process was successful due to the country's agricultural abundance, stable political environment, and large imperial power.
Agricultural abundance was one of the factors that made England the first country on earth to industrialize. In the early 18th century, innovations and technologies enabled England to increase its agricultural production than ever before. Advances such as effective crop rotation helped increase production. A larger portion of land was used for agricultural purposes. In the year 1700, about 20% of the arable land in England could not support crop production. However, this reduced to 4% in the year 1871 (Hartwell 30). More importantly, the discovery of nitrogen spurred yields from cereals cultivation. The increased food production fuelled a significant growth in population. As a result, many people moved to towns, increased urbanization and offered required workforce for the industrial revolution.
England became the first country to industrialize because of its stable political environment. Reportedly, England's unprecedented political stability and environment played a critical role during the Industrial Revolution. Following the Glorious Revolution, the British parliament exercised a more reasonable freedom from the emperor and this made the country to be free from unnecessary conflicts. As opposed to other absolute monarchies, the British parliament applied little restrictions on the country's economy, and this enabled firms and other aspiring entrepreneurs to invest and grow without any problem (Allen 120). More importantly, In England, industrialists were free from anxieties of a revolt and were also lightly controlled.
England is the country to first industrialize because of its imperial power. During 17th to 19th century, England was the leading country in the world that had the largest colonial empire. In the early 19th century, Britain's Royal Navy was the strongest across the globe, and it controlled oceanic trade (Allen 125). This significantly benefited British factory owners because it implied that their exports in the foreign markets would be transported safely. The foreign colonies would also provide industrialists in England with opportunities to trade with Chinese silks, Indian teas, as well as, West Indian sugar. Principally, these products could easily be exchanged for industrial commodities manufactured in England. More importantly, the large colonial empire provided the country with the power to colonize other countries in the era of imperialism and to obtain numerous raw materials and labor across the globe.
In conclusion, the industrialization witnessed in England was unique and the first in the world. The Industrial Revolution was achieved due to a myriad of factors such as agricultural abundance, stable political environment, and large imperial power. These factors blended to provide England with favorable conditions to rapidly industrialize.
Allen, Robert C. "The British industrial revolution in global perspective: how commerce created the industrial revolution and modern economic growth." Unpublished, Nuffield College, Oxford (2006).
Hartwell, Ronald Max. The causes of the Industrial Revolution in England. Routledge, 2017
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