Implementation of a Navigation software tool Through portable devices (EFB) in airlines

Published: 2019-08-28 07:30:00
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There has been rapid digital technology development in aviation. Most airplane manufactures depends on automated systems on airport operation and on air. This has made people to appreciate the significance of computers in simplifying how we do things. Computers have been applied everywhere in the aviation industry. In other words, computers are used to control airplanes and at the same time the passengers onboard carries computers in different forms like Smartphone, tablets, and laptops. This thesis gives a detailed report of the use of electronic flight bag as a navigational tool in aviation. It also gives the pros and cons of using EFB.

The Electronic Flight Bag was discovered due to the need to improve efficiency and reduced the operational cost. Basically, electronic flight bag is a computerized model which replace the amenities of the aircrew which has always been in form of paperwork through airplane integrated computer or mobile storage. This application has several pros, for instance a it reduces the otherwise bulky manuals carried onboard whenever an airplane is on air. In addition, the issue of outdated or missing documentation is eliminated. As flight companies continue to implement the use of electronic flight bag, the air operators realized its importance and started to appreciate its benefits. This led to rapid evolution of EFB into an item that plays a significant role the safely of flight information delivery and its interaction with both human and other on-board avionics. In addition, electronic flight bag can provide the following services it can give instrument and navigation approach chart. It provides operation manual libraries such as airplane flight manual or minimum equipment list. It provides forms with text area which can be filled to give journey log, voyage report or safely reports.

Moreover, electronic flight bag accommodates the planes weight, balance and performance. It has software packages which can carry out calculation replacing the tabulated paper charts. These packages provide more accurate information since actual data rather than estimated data is used as input.

Other uses of EFB include communication, air traffic control and cabin surveillance such as automatic dependent surveillance broadcast. Ideally, investing on EFB is justified by its benefits and pros. For instance, tracking which entails rapid dissemination and promulgation of important information to aircrews. This is a very vital aspect of flight safety. It enables the flight crew supervisors to access when one of the crew members has gain access to crucial flight crew notice and declares that he or she has read and understood the content therein.

Therefore, the EFB idea is a brilliant notion that gives the operators a plus in air efficiency and safety and at the same time reduces the operation cost. Though this technology has a lot of advantages, there are disastrous cons which can possibly upset the equilibrium.

The cons involve regulation with regards to the type of software and equipment installed and its administration. The airplane manufactures or the operators should apply for permit to implement EFB and this application should give a detailed compliance report which gathers hardware, software, policy, administration and training of the crew. Despite comprehensive EFB regulations, there has been a fatal accident and other incidence of failure across the world. Errors made by human error are the major cause of these serious incidences. These errors are either deliberate or accidental, because some are committed by experienced members of the aircrew. The disparities from the wrong data entered produced results which could have never raise suspicion to the pilot.

There is also the risk of the hardware used by these computer devices for instance the material used in making the computer battery which can erupt and cause fire in the airplane. Extreme temperatures can make the lithium-ion batteries to erupt to a spontaneous flame which is tricky to extinguish. Studies have shown that the grounding of B787 fleet has been caused by the lithium battery fires.

The reports also tries to give highlights of safety threat issues that comes with EFB considering the time that it has been used and recommend the improvement that should be included to meet the flight safety requirements.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u LIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc447796369 \h 5LIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc447796370 \h 6Chapter 1. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc447796371 \h 71.1Scope PAGEREF _Toc447796372 \h 71.2Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc447796373 \h 71.3Approach PAGEREF _Toc447796374 \h 71.4Outcome PAGEREF _Toc447796375 \h 7Chapter 2. Background and review of Literature PAGEREF _Toc447796376 \h 82.1Background PAGEREF _Toc447796377 \h 82.2Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc447796378 \h 82.3Theory PAGEREF _Toc447796379 \h 92.4Terms PAGEREF _Toc447796380 \h 9Chapter 3. Analysis and Design PAGEREF _Toc447796384 \h 11Chapter 4. Implementation (Realization) PAGEREF _Toc447796388 \h 12Chapter 5. Results and Evaluation PAGEREF _Toc447796392 \h 13Chapter 6. Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc447796396 \h 146.1Lessons Learned PAGEREF _Toc447796397 \h 146.2Academic Application and Limitations PAGEREF _Toc447796398 \h 146.3Business Application and Limitations PAGEREF _Toc447796399 \h 146.4Recommendations / Prospects for Future Research / Work PAGEREF _Toc447796400 \h 14REFERENCES CITED PAGEREF _Toc447796401 \h 15

IntroductionICT has brought about massive developments in every industry. Previously the implementation of computers in aviation industry was solely integrated avionics for airplane and its component operation. Currently, the introduction of portable computers such as tablets and smartphones has embraced manufactures and operators to come up with ways of implementing this technology to reduce administrative costs, improve efficiency and lower operational cost. It is in regards to paper forms and books needed before the commercial airline is flying.

The flights operators desire to become paperless have been initiated by the introduction of portable computers onto the flight deck. This specifically has been made feasible by EFB principle. This section of the thesis gives the details of what the thesis covers, the problem statement, the approach of the research and its outcomes.

ScopeThe dissertation covers principle or the architecture of an electronic flight bag, how is used in an airplane, its operation principles, the advantages and disadvantages that comes with the used of an EFB and its operation standards. The architecture entails different models of electronic flight bags and there suitability to different types of airplanes.

Though the dissertation gives an overview of the EFB architecture, it does not give the details of the particular hardware and software requirements. The detail of successful and unsuccessful incidences in situations where a EFB has been implemented is also not captured. It does not cover the statistics of airline companies which have implemented the EFB since almost all the airlines have embraces this technology.

Problem StatementSpecifically, could there be differences in the ways that the information is captured, understood or retrieved when an electronic device display it as opposed to when in paper form? If this is the case, what are the concerns to put into consideration and the ways to improve how EFB usability so that the disparities in performances can be reduced?

Approach- the research will apply a theoretical approach, which is a not empirical. It will involve literature review of different articles on the use of electronic flight bag in automation of flight crew services. It will also assume a qualitative research where details of specific EFB application situations will be described to give an in-depth understanding of EFB system application, benefits and disadvantages. This method enables me to understand opinions, reasons and motivation that lead to introduction of EFB systems in aircraft. It will assist me to understand and develop hypotheses or ideas used to uncover developments in EFB opinions and thoughts

Outcome- this research showed that electronic flight bag has great capabilities and potential in enhancing safety, accuracy and reliability of the flight information and other aircraft services such as surveillance, performance and e-documentation. However, there some disadvantages due to the nature of some devices used in EFB systems such as the lithium battery used in tablets which can cause fire risking the safety of the aircraft.

Background and review of LiteratureBackgroundThe electronic flight bag has been implemented in aviation industry as a way of enabling crew members and pilots to get manuals, checklists, charts and other functions in electronic equivalent. The electronic flight bag simplifies the work of the crew members when updating the flight documents and reduces the onboard load since the otherwise paperwork weight is eliminated. According to () using apple iPad as an electronic flight bags increased due to its low cost and portability.

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Electronic flight bag is defined by an electronic display system developed purposely for flight dock use that entails software and hardware needed to support air crew services. It can provide different aviation data and calculate basic operation such as data performance or calculation of fuel. Previously, these functions were performed manually using paperwork while others were done using mechanical devices such as calculators. EFB functionality scope includes other hosted applications and databases. Various technologies, forms of communication and formats are used in physical EFB display.

Personal electronic devices (PEDs) or tablet that carries Type A or Type B program applications are also taken as EFB. With the raise in electronic devices application in information display, it is important to have the insight of the implications of EFB on acquisition and retention of flight information. Specifically, could there be differences in the ways that the information is captured, understood or retrieved when an electronic device display it as opposed to when in paper form? If this is the case, what are the concerns to put into consideration and the ways to improve how EFB usability so that the disparities in performances can be reduced?

The previous work below concerning EFB in addresses the above questions via a review or related industry and scientific literature. This entails articles from industry publications, conference proceedings and academic journals. Depending on the limited project duration, the review will cover four articles whose main focus is the issues related to the development and use of computerized devices and their implications on acquisition and retention of information. This review does not exhaustively cover the related literature and anybody who reads this document is at liberty to consult the references herein and other related sources. The review will give a detailed description on how textual and spatial information can be gathered, retained and understood when it is paper-based compared with using electronic devices. In addition, it will give a detailed description of different factors relating to architecture, operating principle and pros and cons of using electronic flight bag. Lastly, it will give the summary of the findings and recommend on how to improve and optimize the use of EFB. It is my expectation that the review and recommendations herein will provide the fundamental knowledge required by the Federal Aviation Administ...

sheldon

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