Essay Sample on Howard Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligence

Published: 2023-02-23
Essay Sample on Howard Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligence
Type of paper:  Report
Categories:  Psychology Intelligence Personality
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1700 words
15 min read

When people talk about intelligence, the concept that comes to mind is the intelligent quality (IQ) tests that are used to determine the level of knowledge of an individual. Usually, intelligence is defined as the intellectual potential which some people are born with and can be measured depending on the level of capacity that is characterized by an institution or an individual. However, there have been different views of intelligence that have been brought to the place in recent years. One of the concepts that have emerged is the theory of multiple intelligence proposed by Howard gardener, who was a psychologist at Harvard University. This theory has numerous strong points and weaknesses as well as other different individuals who have applied this theory. The approach of multiple intelligence advocates for the differentiation of people's abilities based on different modalities instead of judging it into one; this work gives a narrative discussion reviewing Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence.

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Theory of Multiple Intelligences Theory and Theorists

The theory of multiple intelligence suggests the conventional psychometric perspectives of intelligence are Limited in numerous ways. Therefore, intelligence should be tested based on a variety of modalities. This theory was first outlined by a Gardener in the year 1983 while writing his book the frames of mind: theory of intelligence. In the book, Gardener states that everyone has a different perspective on intelligence. He proposed eight various forms of intelligence. Other theorists who support this theory are Gilman and Lynn.

Legacy of Howard Gardners

In relation to the understandings of Howard gardener, these forms of intelligence can be categorized depending on people's perception and their abilities. Those who are linguistically intelligent know how to manipulate words and languages while those who have logical-mathematical intelligence understand how to operate or deal with Logics and numbers. Musical intelligent is related to various sounds of music and rhythm, while bodily-kinesics involve body control and movement. For those who are having intelligence in unique visual can understand images and space more than anyone else. Interpersonal intelligent individuals are people who understand the feelings of others and can apply it appropriately, while those who understand intrapersonal intelligence are self-aware of themselves.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Multiple Intelligence

The theory of multiple intelligence has numerous advantages and shortcomings. Gardener states that to capture a wide range of people's abilities and talents, people can also show the capacity in other kinds of intelligence, such as interpersonal, linguistic intelligence, exceptional intelligence, visual intelligence, and musical intelligence. This theory is applicable in schools to show the level of intelligence in individuals (Beauchamp, 2001). For instance, a particular person may be active in a specific subject area; but weak in the other. It is, therefore, applicable in deciding on people's careers. An example is a person who possesses a range of abilities in that particular area; such an individual can have sharp intelligence in verbal execution, musical composition, naturalistic intelligence, or other forms of intelligence.


The theory of multiple intelligence has faced severe criticism from different psychologists and other educators. The critics of this theory argue that the definition that is given by Gardener about intelligence is broad is not specific. Also, the existing eighth intelligence proposed by Gardener covers personality traits and impossibilities that can not be achieved. The other weakness of this theory is the lack of support, as well as a lack of empirical research to back it up.

Significance of the Theory

Linguistic Intelligence

According to the proposals by Gardener, an individual who has a logistic highly intelligent has the ability to manipulate language, including written and spoken words, and integrate various explanations in a more informal style. It also enables an individual to understand the existing relationship between different forms of communication and their meanings. Several tasks and activities that can be used to show whether an individual is intelligent to include people who are capable of being public speakers, copyrighters, teachers, editors, and translators. Television personalities and radio presenters are other individuals who are linguistically intelligent. The preferred style for learning these skills include writing numerous instructions or speaking about a subject in a manner that is showing its capability. Testing this skill may require applying a negative or a positive spin on a story to change the meaning.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

This is the type of intelligence that allows individuals to think logically. Such people can detect patterns that exist within scientific reasoning and deduce analysis to solve problems. Performing mathematical calculations requires a complete understanding of the relationship between different results and tangible outcomes (Shearer, and Karanian, 2017). Those who have accurate intelligence can get involved in tasks such as engineering, computer science, accounting, scientific analysis, banking, and insurance, among others. The preferred learning style for this type of intelligence is the performance of a mental arithmetic calculation that creates processes of measuring a problematic issue. They can also analyze methods in which machines work and create diversity strategies to achieve a particular objective. A number are the main items that are covered in logical-mathematical intelligence.

Musical Intelligence

Musical intelligence is the ability of individuals to perform musical acts and to appreciate the use of sounds and different rhythms competence. In the right manner, those who have musical intelligent can understand how music and sound patterns connect with feelings. Musicians and singers, as well as composers and DJs, are musically capable because they can connect sound patterns in a way that others cannot. Piano tuners and environmental noise advisors also understand elements of sound. The preferred style of learning this intelligence is through performing a piece of audio or reviewing a music outcome to see whether it fits into the quality that is needed or not. Musically intelligent individuals can also coach people how to play musical instruments and to specify different modes with different turn receptions.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligent individuals are those who can perform different body movements and controls to coordinate themselves in the form of balances (Lee, Lee, and Kim, 2015). Such intelligent individuals can also maintain physical agility while concentrating on different activities. Various tasks can be performed by individuals who express kinesthetic intelligent some of these tasks include dancing, firefighting, adventuring, sports personnel as well as numerous performance artists. This form of intelligence can be learned through demonstrations of sports techniques that are perfected upon to create a meme or to mimic activity.

Spatial Visual Intelligence

Spatial visual intelligence is a component of intelligence that involves the interpretation of various creative and visual images as well as expressions. Individuals who understand this can interpret the relationship between different models and their meanings. They can also follow the space and effects that it has. Tasks include cartoonists, artists, photographers, visionaries, and others. Other people can get involved in and makeups and interpreting the existing paintings. Through continuously designing the logos, individuals in this area can express the intelligence in the form of shapes, images, and the 3D space.

Interpersonal Intelligence

People who interpersonal intelligence have a complete understanding of other people's feelings, and they can relate to them in ways that others cannot connect. They also can integrate various behaviors of individuals and communicate with them so that they can understand different situations (Helding, 2009). Some of the tasks that interpersonal intelligent individuals get involved and include therapists, human resources, professionals, and leaders. Others include psychologists, sales individuals, politicians, and counselors. These people can motivate others and convince them to improve on the ideas that they should improve in. The learning style for this type of individuals includes the interpretation of various forms of moods and facial expressions so that they can determine ways of feelings. It requires an understanding of body language and the effects of human contact on teamwork.

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence refers to the ability to have personal objectivity and to improve self-awareness about one's relationship with others. Those who are interpersonal intelligent can relate to other people's feelings with their own and create a change with others. They also have the ability to change personal thoughts and beliefs of other people. The main tasks for individuals with interpersonal intelligence involve changing different mindsets of people and improving their relationship with others. The most preferred learning styles include understanding one's personal goals and deciding on how to achieve it. These individuals can self-reflect and rediscover their ways and decide what is best for them.


In conclusion, concepts of determining an individual's intelligence have been debated upon for a long time by various scholars. The IQ test has been used to assess the level of intelligence of an individual. IQ tests have also been used to show whether people are capable of solving problems or not. However, over the last two centuries, numerous psychologists have proposed different elements of intelligence. The concept of multiple intelligence was introduced by Howard Gardner, who stated that an individual could be intelligent in one area more than others. His theory of multiple intelligence is based on the differences that exist in an individual's capacities and abilities. The approach differentiates people into different modalities instead of seeing intelligence as an idea that is demonstrated by the overall or general knowledge. Therefore, testing information requires the identification of areas where individuals can do well more than others. It is essential to notice the strong point of an individual, such as people's ability to music as well as those who are good at languages and other things. Despite the criticism that this theory has received, multiple intelligence theory will continue to be a more practical way to determine the level of intelligence of individuals.


Beauchamp, G. A. (2001). Curriculum theory: Meaning, development, and use. Theory into Practice, 21(1), 23-27.

Helding, L. (2009). Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Singing, 66(2), 193. 60617d4b54bd68a8adc3d7847584f711.pdf

Lee, I. Y., Lee, J. H., & Kim, M. H. (2015). The effect of nutrition education based on the theory of multiple intelligence in elementary school students. The Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition, 28(1), 134-142. DOI :

Shearer, C. B., & Karanian, J. M. (2017). The neuroscience of intelligence: Empirical support forthe theory of multiple intelligences?. Trends in neuroscience and education, 6, 211-223.

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