Free Essay. High Middle Ages

Published: 2023-05-09
Free Essay. High Middle Ages
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  History Government Christianity Church
Pages: 3
Wordcount: 576 words
5 min read

Papal Monarchy has always been viewed as more of a paradox but not a fact. Christian believers have always noted a thin line between the state and the church. The language of the papal Monarchy, on its part, has been one that is inescapable within the Middle Ages. The time frame was also marked by the fierce rivalry between the popes, bishops, and the authorities which were primarily made up of the kings. The rise of the Papal Monarchy was also one that was marked with significant chapters and entailed different events and happenings. The paper seeks to expound on the issues that characterized the rise and fall of the Papal Monarchy.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

Description of the Features of Gregory VII's New Vision of the Papacy

Gregory VII was believed to have linked the war against simony, with the main concern being on the clerical celibacy that emphasized papal supremacy. The supremacy was based on a concept of the Roman Catholic Church. It was also the supremacy that led to the destruction of the diplomatic relationship between Constantinople and Rome. The features included the subordination of the entire secular authority to Papal authority (Summerlin, 2016). The bishops and the archbishops were also required to be obedient. Canon laws were also to be upheld with severe punishment for any violation. Religion at the time became strong, with strict guidelines governing its operations.

The Investiture struggle between Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV of Germany

The struggle between Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV of Germany was also referred to as the lay controversy. It concerned religious and secular dominations. Its genesis can be traced to 1078, which ended around 1122. The controversy began the moment Gregory VII was appointed the pope but was rejected by King Henry. The king advised the Romans to make a new choice, something that angered Gregory, he, therefore, declared that Henry was no longer fit to serve as an emperor, and the subjects were not obligated to obey him. It was from this that the war ensued. The Saxons came together and became rebels, and those who were anti-royalists became stronger within months. The struggle greatly affected the papacy. With the bad relationship between the two authorities, people could not adhere to the principles of the papacy, and as such, the monarch system was under threat.

The Decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)

The Saracens and the Jews were ordered to put on specific clothes and pledge allegiance to Catholicism. The word transubstantiation was sanctioned as the primary expression for Eucharistic doctrine. Waldenses and Cathari were also condemned (Barber, 2017).

Role of Crusades and Other Details

It is also significant to note that Pope Urban II initiated crusades to help Christian Byzantine Empire that was under Muslim attack. Even though the crusades focused on the restoration of Christianity, it affected the papacy greatly. Many people lost trust in Monarchy hence the rise of Rome as a result of campaigns that were made by Pope Urban II. The decline of the papacy was also created by many things (Summerlin, 2016). Other factors included the influence of King Philip IV of France and the consideration of moving the papal court from Rome to Avignon.


Barber, M. (2017). The Cathars: dualist heretics in Languedoc in the high middle ages. Routledge. Retrieved from

Summerlin, D. (2016). Papal Councils in the High Middle Ages. In A Companion to the Medieval Papacy (pp. 174-196). Brill.

Cite this page

Free Essay. High Middle Ages. (2023, May 09). Retrieved from

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism