Global Commodities Project Proposal - Essay Example

Published: 2023-10-04
Global Commodities Project Proposal - Essay Example
Essay type:  Problem solution essays
Categories:  Ecology Water Global warming Social responsibility
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 1070 words
9 min read

As much as water forms a more significant percentage of the world's surface coverage, its availability for consumption is still a problem, and not many people have access to it. Due to the difficulties experienced in accessing the water, people and organizations have gone ahead to devise mechanisms through which this water can reach people for consumption. Ways that have been employed include the use of taps and bottling the same. Debates about the type of water that is safe for drinking have been on the rise, but the two continue to serve people concerning the continued increase in the human population.

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Commodity Chain of Bottled Water

Bottled water is seemingly a simple product when it is already packed. However, it requires a substantial amount of knowledgeable and skilled manpower, fossil fuels, another raw material to transition from the raw source materials to a finished product on the shelves that can be consumed by human beings or animals. Bottled water is either sourced from the taps or the natural springs. The water is then packed in plastic bottles known as PET, polyethylene terephthalate (Arnold & Larsen, 2015).

It is the most recommended material for packing bottled water because the material is highly recyclable and sustainable. In many countries, the material is made from natural gas and crude oil. Bottling factories are well spread across the world, with the majority stationed where the water is sourced. The water is filled in the bottles then sealed. From the factories, the water is transported through various means to reach where it is demanded through shops or supermarket outlets and water vending machines (Lmariouh et al., 2019). Because of the chain that is undergone in the production of bottled water, its price has continued rising beyond tap water despite its marketing growth.

Labor Conditions Under Which Bottled Water is Produced

The demand for bottled water across the world has continued to rise in recent years. For instance, the last decade witnessed the bottled water market grow to nearly 40% by volume, where several billions of gallons were consumed even more than the soft drinks (Bertesteanu, 2020). The above is attributed to the increase in population and the scarcity of tap water in some regions. The rise also incorporates the general perception of individuals that bottled water is safer than tap water. The above factors are a reason why bottled water is among the labor-intensive industries across the world. The demand for bottled water has significantly contributed to many investors' decision to set up bottled water factories near the sources and where the market is significant for time and place utility purposes. Many people are required to produce water at the factories, and there are also those required in the distribution of the commodity to customers.

Environmental Consequences of the Production Process

Just like any manufacturing plant, bottled water factories have some impact on the environment. As much the plastic water bottles can be recycled, their production accompanies the production of vast amounts of fossil fuels. For instance, in countries like the United States, millions of oil barrels are used in making the bottles (Gleick & Cooley, 2009). Compared with tap water, whose distribution to homesteads and companies is through efficient infrastructure that does not consume a lot of fossil fuels, transportation of bottled water primarily for longer distances involves the use of motor vehicles that burn massive quantities of fossil fuels (McGrane, 2020). Fossil fuels are also used in the packaging of the water. Therefore, plastics are non-biodegradable for those that are poorly disposed of by the company or the people after water usage are found all over the rivers and water sources and landfills. Such endanger marine animals' lives that might get into contact with the plastics (Denzel, 2019).

Effects of the Production Process on Peoples' Health

Bottled water manufacturing companies allow for the use of fossil fuels harmful to the health of the workers and the surrounding communities. For instance, the use of fossil fuels releases harmful fumes to the atmosphere that are breathed in by the people. The fumes are toxic to the respiratory systems of people that end up suffering from respiratory diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Some of the chemicals used in production get into contact with their skin putting workers in danger of developing skin diseases or instead burning them. Lastly, when the fumes combine with rain, they lead to acid rain that can cause skin cancer or other diseases when directly consumed by the people.

Health Effects from Consumption of Bottled Water

Production of bottled water results in some adverse effects on the health of human beings and other animals. Its production involves the use of plastics that are made of different chemical components. An increase in temperature in the environment the plastic is exposed to the production of a chemical called bisphenol-A (University of Cincinnati, 2008). It is an environmental estrogen whose release is faster under high temperatures. The chemical is an endocrine disruptor that changes the functioning of the endocrine system by imitating natural hormones' functions. Increased consumption of water containing the chemical is harmful to animals. Consumption of bottled water with PVC particles also impairs the metabolic rate of people and animals, limiting their chances of survival.


Arnold, Emily, and Janet Larsen. “Plan B Updates - 51: Bottled Water - Pouring Resources Down the..Drain.EPI.”.Earth-Policy.Org,.2015..

Bertesteanu, L. (2020, July 06). Why is Bottled Water Bad for the Environment? Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, April 07). Commercially Bottled Water. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

Deziel, C. (2019, March 02). How Is Bottled Water a Contributor to Global Warming? Retrieved July 10, 2020, from 22693.html

Gleick, P. H., & Cooley, H. S. (2009). Energy implications of bottled water. Environmental Research Letters, 4(1), 014009.

Lmariouh, J., Hachemi, N. E., Jamali, M. A., Bouami, D., & Rousseau, L. M. (2019). An integrated production and distribution problem with direct shipment: a case from Moroccan bottled-water market. International Journal of Operational Research, 34(1), 144-160.

McGrane, K. (2020, June 11). Tap Water vs. Bottled Water: Which Is Better? Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

University of Cincinnati. (2008, February 4). Plastic Bottles Release Potentially Harmful Chemicals (Bisphenol A) After Contact with Hot Liquids. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 9, 2020 from

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