Free Paper with the Annotated Bibliography on Racism in the World

Published: 2022-09-23
Free Paper with the Annotated Bibliography on Racism in the World
Type of paper:  Argumentative essay
Categories:  Racism
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1823 words
16 min read

The issue of racism persists in various parts of the world. Racism is not a new concept in the European nations. Racism has influenced how people are treated in the world. Racism is one of the growing social issues that has attracted many researchers and humanitarian agencies to protect the rights of the people. Most researchers affirm that many people especially blacks and other individuals from other races face many challenges due to their color and inferiority complex. Though there is increased awareness on the topic about racism with the creation of different movements such as black lives matter and the Civil Rights Movement, this has not yet reduced the gap among the discriminators and those who are discriminated. For instance, the following scholars have argued how various racism practices are experienced in the world especially in European nations.

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Annotated bibliography

Sanou, Boubakar. "Ethnicity, tribalism and racism: A global challenge for the Christian church and its mission." (2015). In this article Sanou addresses the issue of racism in details. He explains how racism is still a challenge in society, especially in churches because they do not preach what they practice. The author blames the churches for failing to practically implement unity and equality among people of different races. Religion is based on cultural, ethnic, and racial differences. This has become a difficult challenge to overcome even though the church preaches about equality. The author argues that ethnicity and racial difference is not just the main problem but it is strengthened with prejudice and that results to superiority and inferiority complex. That has made people start believing that the superior race is dominating over the inferior competition. Racism has made people believe that not all people have the same intrinsic value, but they vary based on their superiority and inferiority state. Racial differences in the world have been used to tear down or split people of different communities. The author asserts that racism in the church is a not just a social problem but a severe sin. He argues that the church should be a place to harbor attitudes and actions of the followers.

The author concluded that racism has negatively affected the faith of people in the Christian churches. Their religion and professional ethics have been significantly compromised and eroded the mission of the church. He observes that racism does not just occur in the American churches but all over the world. If segregation is the basis of people from one race, then the model of unity lacks meaning. It is essential for Christians to be a positive witness of changing people from being racists all over the world.

Tilki, M, K Dye, K Markey, D Scholefield, C Davis, and T Moore. "Racism: The Implications for Nursing Education." Diversity in Health and Social Care. 4.4 (2017): 303-312. Print this article, the researcher analyzed how different students view racism in their school setting. The author found out that there still exists a high level of racism among the students and the lecturers. The students discriminated the colored students as well as their lecturers who are black. At the same time, the white lecturers use discriminative language or actions when addressing the blacks as opposed to the white students. The black students have bad experiences being in the nations that promote racism in the classroom. This hinders them from growing into professionally responsible people when they get out. The author states that the legal duty of the public authorities has either failed or is reluctant to address the issue of racism and the promotion of equality. They have been unable to commit themselves to look for ways that can stop racism.

He proposes that the institutions must be addressed to create a conducive learning environment for the students. The students should be molded to be culturally competent medical practitioners in the contemporary cultural world. The researchers of this article conducted a qualitative study to investigate the perceptions and experiences of racism among nursing students. The results demonstrated that racism exists in different ways and it is experienced by the lecturers as well as students. Racism has been promoted due to societal, historical as well as organizational factors. The responses from the participants indicated that there is ignorance at the organization and the personal level regarding the issue of racism. The beliefs and ideas of racism are based on colonial history as well as earlier experiences. Racism requires one to have good strategies which consider the fear, emotions, and anxieties of the participants. Moreover, the lecturers need to receive support and be guided on how to participate in the transformative education that deals with feelings and emotions. The educators are asked to pay greater attention to the pedagogical procedures in the classroom and be culturally competent

Feagin, Joe R. Racist America: Roots, current realities, and future reparations. Routledge, 2010. this article, Feagin argues that the ways of discrimination have now changed in that the contemporary patterns of racism are based on the benefits the whites get from the blacks. They have now shifted from the slavery form of practice to the discriminatory practices which are unjust but improvised from the past. The current racism is based on anti-black attitudes, emotions as well as images. The whites have a negative attitude towards the black. They misjudge the blacks and undermine their abilities as well as rendering them as valueless individuals. The racial barriers make the majority to have many opportunities, unlike the majority group. The whites are still treated with stereotypes, prejudice, and misinterpretation. The whites interact with the whites in various setting such as school, work, or restaurants but later they negatively perceive them. The writer in this article argues that the anti-black attitudes were initially expressed in the form of discrimination, but now it is expressed as a social norm. Most blacks are discriminated against having a house in the white neighborhood; employment goes first the majority population, politics and public accommodations are meant for the whites.

There is no unique way that social norms guide racial discrimination. However, most social norms today are not written, but discrimination is practiced repeatedly. The whites who are the majority group uses power to discriminate the individuals. The author asserts that current perception can be self-driven, or just based on unconscious beliefs. When the whites and any other color interact, they create tension as well as racial barriers either intentionally or unintentionally. They view the blacks as criminals, and even the images they display about blacks is perceived with bad vices. Most of the discriminators target the Africans more than other white skinned people

Williams, David R, Selina A. Mohammed, Jacinta Leavell, and Chiquita Collins. "Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health: Complexities, Ongoing Challenges, and Research Opportunities." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1186.1 (2010): 69-101. Print. The article explains racial variations in health among people with different socioeconomic status. Race reflects different dimensions of social inequality among individuals as well as households. Williams argues that racial disparity is associated with health problems. Most of the minority suffer from various mental illnesses due to social discrimination. Evidence from the study indicates that most of the people who experience different mental illness are blacks compared to the whites. Understanding and addressing the issue of racial discrimination in the health industry should start with knowledge and dealing with the causing factors.

Williams suggests that we first need to understand and explain multidimensional social practices of racism and combine the health effects. That requires consideration of the SES among the complexities and the risk factors of social and resource impacts to the health. Secondly, the history of migration, status as well as the context should be addressed to know the contributing factors of the health issue. The researcher concluded that most of the health issues among the non-white minority is directly linked to the racial discrimination. Different strategies should be used to identify and understand the casing factors before dealing with the health issue. Coping with the casing factor reduces future health issues associated with race and socioeconomic status.

McKenzie, Kwame, and Kamaldeep Bhui. "Institutional racism in mental health care." (2016): 649-650. Racism at the institutions is one of the main problems regarding inequality among the blacks as well as whites in the United States. Racism is defined as the practice, economic structure or principle which places the minority among the disadvantaged groups as opposed to the white majority. The writer explains that in the institutions, the school budgets and quality of teachers is based on the race. The rich whites have better public schools as well as quality teachers as they are allocated more funds for education. While. The social hierarchy began when the minority group are inferior to the whites occupied the upper echelon in the society whereas most blacks become slaves working as servants for the whites. As a result, the whites received more privileges in politics, economics, education as well as social status. The interaction denigrated as well as belittled the blacks.

The amendment of abolishing slavery did not change the perception of the whites towards the blacks. The argument that the writer gives is that racism in the contemporary world is still practiced and it reflects the historical beliefs. The practices of racism still exist in housing contracts, banking institutions, lending policies are tight for the Africans than whites. Moreover, law enforcement is again misinterpreting the blacks as criminals and portray their pictures wrongly in the media creating a barrier to end racial discrimination. Some researchers argue that the issue of inequality results from cultural pathology but the best way to understand the inequality between the whites and the blacks is first understanding the development of institutionalized racism

Bobo, L D, and C Fox. "Race, Racism, and Discrimination: Bridging Problems, Methods, and Theory in Social Psychological Research." Social Psychology Quarterly. 66 (2013): 319-332. Print. Racism is widespread all over the world, for instance, in this article the author explains that most blacks experience racism in the organizations, workplace and the labor markets. The writer reviewed different studies and found out that majority of the studies demonstrate that the blacks are more disadvantaged in the labor market compared to the whites. The disadvantage is based on the race which determined the black's life. Despite the attempts to reduce discrimination, it is still evident that racism persists in the workplace. The employers still show stereotype towards the black employees. They perceive them as incompetent, weaker, and soft skills as well as lacking enough skills and acknowledge.

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