3) The Real Junk Food Project sells?
Answer: Foods that the supermarket cannot sell because they are past their 'sell by' or 'best by' dates (Barnes, C.2017).
4) As globalization (the worldwide movement of people and product) increases so will the following threat to biodiversity
Answer: Invasive species and genes
5) Which of the following is least likely to be considered biopiracy?
Answer: Pirating a ship containing leather goods from Italy
Waste and biodiversity "coursework"
1) What are the strange sightings the Inuts on Banks Island began to have?
Response: The strange sightings that the Inuts on the Banks Island began to see were climate changes in the mid-eighties, and for the first time, they started to robins a type of bird which Inuts in the region had not seen.
2) What's going on with the world's butterflies?
Response: Twenty-two species of the world's butterflies have shifted their range northward in the recent decade while one species has shifted southwards
3) What is the Wyeomyia Smithii more commonly known as? How is climate change affecting this insect?
Response: Wyeomyia Smithii is commonly known as a pitcher plant mosquito. Climate change affects in the sense that its larva becomes inactive before the cold weather hits. The larva awakes during spring season after frost has passed.
4) What happened to the golden toads of Costa Rica?
Response: The golden toads of Costa Rica became extinct because in the year 1997 there was a spring season that was unusually warm, it was hot and dry. It affected the temporary pools that the golden toads were thriving in because most of the water in the pools evaporated before the tadpoles existing in them had the time to mature.
5) Why do ecologists ironically appreciate climate change and what is the worst-case scenario presented at the end of part one
Response: Ecologists ironically appreciate climate change because it gives micro-organisms the ability to evolve quickly. It also makes them develop resistance to diseases. The worst scenario is that climate is putting organisms and the ecosystem under stress, hence creating opportunities for invasive species and also increased tropical diseases.
6) Has climate change happened before at the local level? What might be an example?
Response: For the first time before cities were built and founded, great agricultural tracks produced no grain, nun dated tracks produced no fish. Additionally, there were no irrigated orchards produced no syrup or wine, clouds gathered but produced no rain and masgurum did not grow (Nelson, G. C., Valin, H., Sands, R. D., Havlik, P., Ahammad, H., Deryng, D. & Kyle, P. 2014).
7) Climate change models are very complicated. How long does it take to run the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model? Explain the two types of equations that go into climate models.
Response: They take seven years to complete. GISS has divided the world into two series of boxes. Thirty-three hundred and twelve boxes cover the earth's surface, and the pattern is repeated. Twenty times are moving up the atmosphere so that the arrangement might be thought of as one set of large checker boards stacked on top of one another. Each box represents four degrees latitude by five degrees longitude.
8) What will climate change potentially mean for water supplies?
Response: The warming of the air and earth's surface, melting of sea ice, liquefying ice glaciers and heating the oceans (Fung, T., Farnsworth, K. D., Reid, D. G., & Rossberg, A. G.2015)
9) How was climate disaster different for Tell Leilan compared to what the USA may experience?
The cores were showing dramatic changes in precipitation. Then it dried as it is today. It appeared to have switched from wet to dry all of a sudden. Although no one knows exactly how this happened, it seemed like so many climate events to have been a function feedbacks. The less the rain it got, the less vegetation there was to retain water and so many climate events and so on until finally the system just flipped.
10) what does the joke "God made the world, but the Dutch made the Netherland" mean and what changes to the built environment can we expect with changes in precipitation
The Dutch have pioneered technology which has been applied in water defense and the reclamation of land. Utrecht was a port, but now it is inland. Haarlem is a section of the mainland which is now situated on what used to be a barrier island.
4 Answer the discussion questions from Carolan
It's often said that we've become a throwaway society. Why do you think this is?
It is because everybody is concentrating on new, hot and how to modify things to look better. Nobody cares anymore. Everybody wants new things, hence ignoring old things. It is more than material things; the minds are also being thrown. The society has proved that it's not okay to reason in a certain way and that people need to be equal.
When something of yours breaks, rips or stops merely working how often do you first try to get it repaired? What are some of the barriers to restore and re-use?
Providing help to innovators for them to overcome regulatory obstacles and uncertainties.
Identifying where interpretations and policies can aid smooth reusing products.
Facilitating remanufacturing, repair and refurbishment.
Making use of recyclable components
Creating limits for hazardous elements.
Do corporations bear any responsibility for waste? Or is it a problem best addressed among consumers and through better municipal waste management practices?
Extended Producer Responsibility encourages manufacturers through financial incentives to create friendly environment products. The producers are held responsible for their products after they are thrown away. The policy relieves the government the costs of managing the products because the manufacturers take the responsibility.
Is necessity the mother of invention, to repeat an old and familiar saying, or is invention the mother of necessity?
Previously people's behavior motivated new inventions but today technology is creating necessities and bringing societal changes. There are also effervescent moments of the new obligations which come along with new products getting into the market every day. In simple terms, the consumers take an interest in creations that or importance to them.
5 Answer the discussion question from Carolan
What are links between cultural and biological diversity
Losing cultural diversity which also includes languages is directly linked to losing biological diversity. People who are indigenous create and continue to innovate new knowledge in biology. The existence of cultural and natural diversity brings together researchers who focus on the conservation of biodiversity and culture.
Conventional agriculture has become a monoculture within a monoculture where fields are populated by not just one crop but one variety of a single plant. What are some of the forces driving this specialization?
There are policies whose aims are to improve the amount of income from agriculture. They have a hand in influencing the level of monoculture. With the increased spatial scales in the specialization, monoculture and its ecological effects are most likely to speed up. Meaning that landscape configuration will be affected. Specialization, therefore, exacerbates environmental impacts of specialization.
Can we rely entirely on roots and gene banks when it comes to preserving our biological heritage? Nowadays there are no vegetation classifications to be used by agencies or private organizations. Hence no existence of the rating that could be productively used nationally. This makes it difficult to conserve species. It becomes a real challenge when people attempt to know how ecosystems are represented globally. Hence leaving no solutions other than depending on the gene banks.
Why isn't community conservation in a country like the united states?
Community conservation is not in the united states because the idea of involving the community to conserve nature is effective in countries that have effective democracy. In other parts of the world, efforts to conserve nature don't have similar impacts.
6 Ask a question from anything you found in this coursework
Response: How has climate change benefited human beings?
7 Please prepare a summary/response to the David Keith geoengineering video
Response: David Keith is taking a keen interest to identify particles that have some comparable amounts of light that are scuttering to sulfate. He also aims that the particles should have limited unwanted side effects. He has conducted the experiment for several years on the properties found in calcium carbonate. The tests were supposed to mimic low pressure, temperature and high ultraviolet radiation detected in the atmosphere (Beck, C. E., Hofmann, F., Eliason, J. K., Maznev, A. A., Nelson, K. A., & Armstrong, D. E.2017).
8 Please prepare a summary/response to 'Louisiana climate change skeptics.'
Response: In Louisiana, most of its domestic products are derived from oil and mining. It makes it the most fossil dependant regions found in the United States. Most of the population believe that the climatic changes are real. It may disagree with the changes, not because of ignorance to science, but because they have adequate knowledge and concerns about the happenings in their local environment.
9 Please prepare a summary/response for 'half of the US military sites are vulnerable to climate change now what?'
Response: The department is fully aware of how global the problem is, and as a result, it wants to establish the sites that merit attention. John Conger, the founder of the survey, says that the department has to link with individual events which include downed power lines from regular storms, to the impacts on various missions.
10 Please prepare a summary/response to 106 lawmakers- including 11 republicans-tell Trump climate change is a national security threat
Response: This is a move that has contradicted three decades which involved military planning. Trump administration stayed away from declaring climate change a threat. A bipartisan group consisting of 106 members drafted a letter requesting Trump to consider. Trump replied by saying that climate policies will not stop shaping the global system hence Us leadership is indispensable to countering an anti-growth energy agenda.
Barnes, C. (2017). Mediating good food and moments of possibility with Jamie Oliver: Problematising celebrity chefs as talking labels. Geoforum, 84, 169-178.
Nelson, G. C., Valin, H., Sands, R. D., Havlik, P., Ahammad, H., Deryng, D., ... & Kyle, P. (2014). Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(9), 3274-3279.
Fung, T., Farnsworth, K. D., Reid, D. G., & Rossberg, A. G. (2015). Impact of biodiversity loss on production in complex marine food webs mitigated by prey-release. Nature Communications, 6, 6657.
Beck, C. E., Hofmann, F., Eliason, J. K., Maznev, A. A., Nelson, K. A., & Armstrong, D. E. (2017). Correcting for contact area changes in nanoindentation using surface acoustic waves. Scripta Materialia, 128, 83-86.
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