1.0 Introduction / Background / Rationale
Single parenthood is a situation which has always existed, which is as ancient as humanity. A single parent is a parent who has most of the day-to-day obligations in raising the child or children, not living with a spouse or partner (Dowd, 1997). Children's socialization is very crucial for any society's continuity. Family, particularly children, is indeed the essential agent of social interaction.
In many societies, children are brought up in an extremely organized and disciplined way. Parents help instill in their kids dominant fundamental moral, spiritual, social, physical, and cognitive values. Single-parenting demographic trends show a global increase in kids living in single-parent homes globally (McBroom & Enriquez, 2009). Single parenting in the United States is becoming an accepted norm, which is similarly an accepted phenomenon observed in many nations. Stephen & Udisi (2016), states that marital separation is frequently associated with significant emotional distress among child relationships. Compared to two-parent households, college dropout is as twice among single-parent children as it is among two-parent children (Stephen & Udisi, 2016).
1.1 Objectives of the Study
The study's overall purpose is to examine the impacts of single parenthood in Dutch Secondary kids. The study intends to evaluate the incidence of children's issues in single-parent homes against a similar simplicity of kids from the context of dual-parent families. It compares children's well-being in single-parent families with those in two parents. It determines whether a boy child faces considerably higher issues in single-parent households as compared to girls.
1.2 Problem Statement
Even under the most exceptional circumstances, parenthood is demanding enough, making it challenging to be a single parent in our society. The reason is that the difficulties are multi-faceted to one parent. In latest years, the center of much concern and study has been on single parenting in our community. According to Amato and Keith (2000), three theoretical views can explain the potential adverse effects of parental separation on their children's well-being: financial deprivation, social structure, and emotional stress. There are various issues that only single parent faces, which make raising kids somewhat hard. These issues include negativity towards the missing spouse, solitude, deprivation, and uncertainty in raising kids alone without assistance.
2.0 Literature Review
This part of the review of literature requires a critical look at previous researchers' work on the subject or comparable fields. Single parenting studies reports, their causes, and implications for kids are examined. A single parent is one who is not living with a spouse or partner and who has most of the day-to-day responsibility to raise the child or children. The principal caregiver is generally regarded to be a single parent. The breadwinner is the most frequently residing parent the kid has (Dowd, 1997).
Some variables determine single parenthood status. These variables include divorce in couples with kids, spouse death, unintentional pregnancy, desertion, as well as the adoption of single parents. Divorce is one of the significant occurrences in developed nations leading to single parenting (Amato & Keith, 2000). Child custody relates to which parent can make meaningful choices about the kids engaged in the divorce. Physical custody refers to the kid with whom they live. Future interactions are often influenced by the absence of a model for a long-term relationship. A marriage breakdown's essential occurrence is expressed through separation. Even though departure usually is followed by divorce, several couples can sort out their misunderstandings and misgivings and reconcile and move forward with their life (Olaleye & Oladeji, 2010).
It has been shown that the care and socialization of kids from intact families will be improved. It is because the socialization method relies on both parents having supportive roles in supporting these kids; that will undoubtedly have a positive effect on the kids during college years. On the other side, kids from single-parent homes are often more apt to endure neglect and deprivation of individual freedoms and possibilities that in college years will have adverse psycho-social effects on them (Azuka, 2013).
Parents are mainly accountable for their kid's education as well as career growth (Salami & Alawode, 2000). As parents participate in their children's educational operations, their academic success is most probable to be influenced positively. According to Abankwa (2013), kids are three times likelier to drop out of high school in single-parent families than kids from two-parent households. It is because kids under the social structure of single parents may not receive the necessary support since many obligations may overpower the single parent.
2.1 Research Questions
For this study, these questions were raised:
- Is there a substantial distinction in children's issues in single-parent families compared to children in two-parent families?
- Is there a substantial distinction in children's academic performance in single-parent homes compared to children in two-parent families?
- Is there a substantial distinction between boys ' issues in single-parent homes in comparison to girls in single-parent households?
2.2 Theoretical Framework
The study relied mostly on Karl Marx's (2011) conflict theory. He states that there is a perpetual conflict in society due to the limitation of resources. As a result, the sturdy and robust hold on the funds by all means denying the weak and meek. Children from poor and vulnerable families are denied these resources irrespective of how much they qualify and deserve them. The funds are given to some-times less deserving children of might and influential families to the detriment of the poor. Karl Marx Conflict Theory is therefore applicable to explaining the challenges facing single-parent children who are regarded as weak and relatively poor compared to dual-parent families.
Data collection is the method of collecting and measuring data in a defined systematic manner that allows one to respond to detailed study questions, causal inference and assess results. The study is conducted using secondary data from children in Dutch secondary school as well as government surveys about single-parenting in the country. The secondary research is a popular technique of analysis as it includes the use of data collected by others through central studies or surveys.
- The advantages of using secondary data in this study include:
- The data already exists, which is easily accessible, fast, and cost-effective.
- Helps to direct the concentrate for any successive primary studies
- It may include data that is costly and hard to acquire the same through primary research about huge populations.
- In some cases, secondary data study can be the only source of particular pieces of data accessible.
It might be outdated, partial, or incorrectly acquired in some instances.
The data is lacking in particularity or may not solve specific concerns.
Instruments And Analytical Tools Used
Results from national surveys as well as the article by Borgers, Dronkers, & Van Praag (1996), were used as the inputs in this study. In this paper, we report information from significant research undertaken by NIBUD (the Dutch Budget Research Institute) in 1990 comprising over 11,000 students from all kinds of secondary schooling and across all stages of leading and high schools (Borgers, Dronkers, & Van Praag, 1996).
For analytical purposes, various variables were used to analyze the data.
The extent of parents ' economic assistance for students is assessed by the quantity of pocket money provided per week.
Negative self-assessment & educational performance, as evaluated by their self-assessment of the academic achievement of the students relative to their gender.
Pupil's poor physical health, as weighed by the complete monthly incidents of headache, coughing, sore throat, cold, short breath, stomach ache, sharp memory, issues with understanding new stuff, sleeping issues, and amount of illnesses in the kid.
4.0 Statement of Significance / Importance
The data sampled is significant in that:
- It deals with data collected scientifically by a government agency which sampled a large population.
- The data have all the factors in interest in the research and therefore complete and relevant to the study
Following are the impacts of living on the distinct indices of well-being for kids in the different types of a dual and a single-parent household. Analyzes were performed similarly for the potential impacts of distinct family types on boys as well as girls. Furthermore, analyses were carried out for the effects of various family types with poor and extremely trained mothers.
To sum up, the more significant impacts of divorce-induced mother-headed households indicate that living in such a family affects a kid's well-being. The research found that boys in mother-headed homes divide the household less sharply between genders responsibilities than kids in other types of the family.
Children in divorce-induced single-mother households have a higher truancy rate than those in other household types. Educated single mothers' kids appear to have almost the same adverse impacts of living in a single-parent family as kids of uneducated mothers.
The findings are ambivalent in comparison with various family types for their effect on children's well-being. On one side, staying in a divorce-caused mother-headed household has a detrimental impact on the welfare of children. Nevertheless, this is rarely the case in certain forms of the household, where the cause is by separation or death. The findings provide some insight into the potential causes of single parenthood adverse impacts. Living in solitary-parent families or death-caused step-families has less harmful effects on kids as of living in divorce-caused solitary-parent households or step-families. It shows that separation is the sole parenthood's most significant reason for the adverse impact.
Amato, P. and Keith, B. (2000). "Parental Divorce and the Well-being of Children" A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26-46. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1991-32830-001
Azuka-Obieke, U. (2013) "Single Parenting, Psychological Well-being and Academic Performance of Adolescents" University of Lagos, Nigeria. Retrieved from https://journals.co.za/content/sl_jeteraps/4/1/EJC132401
Borgers, N., Dronkers, J., & Van Praag, B. M. (1996). The Effects of Different Forms of Two and Single-Parent Families on the Well-Being of Their Children in Dutch Secondary Education. Social Psychology of Education, 1(2), 147-169. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaap_Dronkers/publication/226020443
Dowd, N. E (1997). "In Defense of Single Families" New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-1916-9. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1Zc-AAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR3&dq=In+Defense+of+Single+Families%E2%80%9D+New+York:+New+York+University+Press+dowd&ots=GQi6HVEjdR&sig=ECSuqSOlB0fwHtgbS_uioDq6yxI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=In%20Defense%20of%20Single%20Families%E2%80%9D%20New%20York%3A%20New%20York%20University%20Press%20dowd&f=false
Marx, K. (2011). Capital, Volume I: A Critique of Political Economy (Vol. 1). Courier Corporation.
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