Free Paper Example about LincRNA

Published: 2022-08-30 22:38:15
Free Paper Example about LincRNA
Type of paper:  Course work
Categories: Medicine Genetics Cancer
Pages: 3
Wordcount: 751 words
7 min read
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Definition of LincRNA

Long intergenic non-coding RNA has been selected for this specific assignment. LincRNA is defined as a type of non-coding RNA that have more than 200 nucleotides and do not overlap glossed coding genes.

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Role of LincRNA

LincRNA plays a critical role in the regulation of biological processes [3]. In addition to that it makes about a half of human transcripts [3]

Classification and structure of LincRNA

The LincRNA falls in the category of noncoding RNAs. It also shows a vital part in cell differentiation, cell propagation, and remodeling of chromatin by trans and cis mechanism through the use of proteins that are scaffolded [4]. Furthermore, it regulates the adjacent genes as well as taking part in the production of neuropeptides [4]. It is discovered that through the structural elements, lincRNA interacts with nucleic acids through sequence complimentary [4].

Altering LincRNA with cancer types

The Long intergenic non-coding RNA remodels architecture of the genome [4]. It has also been altered in more than two cancer types whereby the nature of technology applied in the experiment was on public RNA sequence datasets of the four common solid cancers. [4]

Concept of LincRNA

Most of the lincRNAs have been identified of having no relationship with tumors. The realization was after investigating their functions by using a database. [4]. LincRNAs are identified with the capability of inhibiting the moment when they are undergoing sequestration. For example, the lincRNA has been identified to form a double-stranded structure that binds DNA. This is vital as it blocked receptors from target genes as well as their transcription through promoting stem cell multiplication as well as formation of nuclear which in turn has affected expressions of genes. From annotated lincRNAs, two polypeptides are obtained to regulate membrane pump that in turn controls relation of the muscle [4].

Characteristics of LincRNA

It is evident that LincRNAs are involved in the embryonic development. In addition to that lincRNA was identified to be having the lower expression by the approach of comparing them to PCGs. [4]

Genomic Mutations

The research has shown that genomic mutations within cancer resides deep inside in the regions that do not convert proteins [6]. Those regions are usually transcribed into lincRNA [6]

Functions of Alternative splicing

Notably, the action of splicing takes place through the concerted activities of multi-subunit complexes [2]. Cancer is also a type of disease that is characterized by a variety of epigenetics and genetic aberrations. [5]. It has been noted that the fundamental role of alternative splicing is to promote sustained proliferation signals in cancer. [2]

Causes of alternative splicing

The defects in the alternative splicing is mostly found in the human tumors and it results from mutations in splicing regulatory elements of particular kind of cancer [5]

Functions of LincRNA

RNA splicing regulators has seen to emerge as a fresh class of oncoproteins as well as tumors suppressors [5]. It has also contributed to the progression of disease through RNA isoforms modulation that are involved in seal cancer pathways [5].

Importance of LincRNA

The Polyadenylation status illustrates that LincRNAs have been identified to be vital controllers for transcription, epigenetic inflection as well as transformation. [3]

Other Functions of LincRNA

Some of the other functions of long intergenic non-coding RNA includes the development of stem cells as the key regulators in various cellular processes as well as binding and modulation of stability and translation of other RNAs [1].

References

[1] Samur MK, Gulla A, Fulciniti M, Samur AA, Szalat R, Shamas M, Magrangeas F, Minvielle S, Anderson K, Parmigiani G, Avet-Loiseau H. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs: new independent risk predictors in multiple myeloma.

[2] Ransohoff JD, Wei Y, Khavari PA. The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology. 2018 Mar;19(3):143.

[3] Nie L, Wu HJ, Hsu JM, Chang SS, LaBaff AM, Li CW, Wang Y, Hsu JL, Hung MC. Long non-coding RNAs: versatile master regulators of gene expression and crucial players in cancer. American journal of translational research. 2012;4(2):127.

[4] Bouckenheimer J, Fauque P, Lecellier CH, Bruno C, Commes T, Lemaitre JM, De Vos J, Assou S. Differential long non-coding RNA expression profiles in human oocytes and cumulus cells. Scientific reports. 2018 Feb 2; 8(1):2202.

[5] Urbanski LM, Leclair N, Anczukow O. Alternativesplicing defects in cancer: Splicing regulators and their downstream targets, guiding the way to novel cancer therapeutics. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA. 2018 Jul; 9(4):e1476.

[6] Huarte M. The emerging role of lncRNAs in cancer. Nature medicine. 2015 Nov; 21(11):1253.

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