The ecosystem is derivative of two words. Eco, which means all the living things examples plants, animals, fungi, soil and water while the system which means the interaction between the living and non-living component of the environment. Therefore ecosystem refers to the interaction between the living and the not living component to a particular physical area. The division of ecosystem is into two categories namely Terrestrial and Aquatic. In the terrestrial type, this is the ecosystem found mainly in a heavily saturated environment. Examples are forest ecosystem; desert ecosystem is in areas that require less rain falls, grassland ecosystem is ecosystem mainly located in both tropical and the temperate regions while the mountain ecosystem is an ecosystem where a large number of animals and plants originate. The other category is an aquatic ecosystem that is found only in water component flora and fauna. Examples of aquatic include marine ecosystem that covers 71% of earth surface and 97% of the total water the other one that is fresh water covers 0.8% and 0.009 of earth surface and total water respectively.
Forest ecosystems have a big number of organisms that include plants animals, microbes, soils and also atmosphere. These organisms are in millions. The forest ecosystem regulates hydrological cycle; the forest also protects vegetation it regulates the flow of water and soil, global climate and weather. When we lose forest, it means we have lost over hundreds of thousands of species. In forest ecosystem interaction involve the combination of plants, animals, and the microorganisms and also soil and the atmosphere interaction. Forest ecosystems have a very great value to the wellbeing of a human. We greatly depend on them. Trees enable control of many processes and determine their habitats like animals, plants and another organism. Trees are vital in soil growth process, and they can be subject on the other hand by large vegetation.
The problem caused by human activity in forest ecosystem has increased greatly it include the increase of nitrogen fertilizers by burning fossil fuel. It has increased the nitrous oxide concentration of green gas house; Nitrous oxide is produced mostly from agricultural soil activities through the use of nitrate fertilizers this causes loss of soil nutrients such as calcium and potassium that are very important for soil fertility. This is also done through poor waste product management from factories and our homes. Transportation of nitrogen by rivers into the coastal water where the gas pollutes it, losses of biological variety especially among plants adapted to low nitrogen soil will highly affect animals and microorganisms that depend on these plants. Clearing and cutting down trees or forest for building homes, for building roads and using for domestic use and business purposes. We have in many ways Eradicate predators so that we can increase the population of game creatures.
Deforestation should be highly prevented instead planting trees and caring for forest encouraged through information or educating the society in schools and through social Media. A better and more efficient manure practice should be enhanced, and this will reduce the use of Fertilizers, but the most efficient and effective way is to use a natural process in the soil as this is essential and it helps in gas removal from the air. We can protect ecosystem by getting involved in protecting and restoring in and around our geographical areas maintaining a natural place should be encouraged to deliver a good habitat for wildlife. The management system should be deployed to manage the forest all over the world and a law to enhance this. In most cases implementing this solution has been difficult because of poverty most people rely on trees for domestic use. Fertilizer use is also another limitation because it's an easy and fast way of producing crops. Lack of good facilities to educate the community is a challenge in many countries.
Hunter, Malcolm L. Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge university press, 1999.
Mackey, Brendan. Wildlife, fire & future climate: a forest ecosystem analysis. CSIRO PUBLISHING, 2002.
Perry, David A., Ram Oren, and Stephen C. Hart. Forest ecosystems. JHU Press, 2008.
Waring, Richard H., and Steven W. Running. Forest ecosystems: analysis at multiple scales. Elsevier, 2010.
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