Exploring Mycobacterium Leprae: Structure, Epidemiology, and Management of Hansen's Disease - Essay Sample

Published: 2023-12-16
Exploring Mycobacterium Leprae: Structure, Epidemiology, and Management of Hansen's Disease - Essay Sample
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Biology Medicine Healthcare
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1104 words
10 min read

Introduction to the Mycobacterium Leprae

Mycobacterium Leprae is one of the bacteria that cause Hansen's disease, commonly known as leprosy. Besides, this disease is infectious and majorly damages peripheral nerves by targeting the skin, nose, and even muscles (Sundin et al., 2016). Moreover, it can affect people at any stage of development. Furthermore, Hansen, who was a Norwegian, first discovered it in 1873.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

Structure of Leprae Cells

Mycobacterium Leprae is a rod-shaped bacterium with rounded ends. Besides, it has a length of one to eight microns, a diameter of 0.2 to 0.5 microns. Moreover, the bacteria have a high doubling time of about twelve days hence making vitro research very difficult.

Cell Type

Mycobacterium Leprae is single-celled microscopic organisms that exist in millions in their habitats. Besides, they can live inside or outside the organism. Bacteria are capable of using organic and inorganic compounds as food. Moreover, others can survive in extreme conditions.

Morphology of Bacteria

Mycobacterium Leprae is slender and partially curved with considerable variation in size. Moreover, the morphology of this bacteria resembles cocci, bacilli, vibrios, spirilla, and spirochaetes. Cocci are oval-shaped bacteria measuring about 0.8 micro millimeters in diameter. Bacilli are stick-like with square or swollen ends. Besides, they measure between 1 to 10 micro millimeters in length and a width of about 0.9 micro millimeters (Rau et al., 2018). Vibrios are slightly curved with a rod shape measuring 3 to 4 micro millimeters in length and a width of 0.5 micro millimeters. Most of the vibrio's bacteria are motile and display rapid darting mortality. Spirilla bacteria are regularly coiled, measuring about 3 to 4 micro millimeters in length.

Metabolic Requirements

Mycobacterium Leprae requirements for development and growth include a source of energy like sugars, fatty acids, and metal ions like iron. Some bacteria will require optimal temperature and acidic ph. Bacteria cell is a specialized energy transformer (Reed & Duthie., 2016). Moreover, the energy produced by the oxidation of substances is conserved by creating high-energy compounds. Such compounds are adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate.

Natural Reservoir of Mycobacterium Laprae

Among the natural reservoir of Laprae are humans. Besides, there is also evidence which shows that the armadillo is also a reservoir of the bacterium. Moreover, the transmission of this disease between humans and armadillos goes both ways. Various research is carried out to determine if water and soil are reservoirs of leprosy, but the evidence is weak.

Introduction to the Diseases Caused By Mycobacterium Laprae

Leprosy is an infectious disease that affects the skin. Moreover, the disease is caused by the bacterium Leprae. Besides, the disease is transmitted through direct contact with people who have it. Additionally, it is a disease that can affect adults and even infants.

Epidemiology of Bacterial Disease

According to the bacterium epidemiology reports, there are high rates of registered cases of leprosy globally in the past. Besides, more cases arise between regions and between countries. Global statistics show that 96% of current cases are from fourteen countries. The majority of such regions show high notification alerts of new cases.

Epidemiology of Laprae in Georgia State

In Georgia, the emergence of Mycobacterium Leprae disease results from the evolution of the existing bacterial pathogens. Moreover, 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonosis, which is transmitted from animals to humans. Georgia University is set to address the challenge of the outbreak of this infectious disease.

Signs and Symptoms of Leprosy Diseases

Signs of Hansen’s disease are painless ulcers and skin lesions. Besides, it can be an infection of syphilis bacteria or other bacterial infections, but the difference is one has pain while the other does not have. Another symptom can be eye damage in which the eye becomes dry, and blinking is reduced (Carvalho et al., 2017). Moreover, in the cooler area, the early symptoms can be loss of sensation. One loses all the senses of taste, hearing, and partially develops sight problem.

Describe Factors Employed by Organism to Assist in Its Growth and Reproduction


Mycobacterium Leprae requires minimum, maximum, and optimum temperatures for their growth. Therefore, they can be classified as psychrophilic, which are bacteria that thrive well in a cold environment. Mesophilic, grows well in an environment with moderate temperatures. Besides, they require a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius.

Oxygen Requirement

Laprae bacteria show variation in their oxygen requirements. For instance, most bacteria can be aerobes or anaerobes obligates. Aerobes grow where there is oxygen, while anaerobes obligate produce where there is no oxygen. Facultative anaerobes can survive with or without oxygen.

Binary Fission

Laprae bacterium reproduces through the asexual process in which a single cell divides into two. Under suitable conditions, bacteria can split after every ten to fifteen minutes. Other eukaryotic microorganisms reproduce by both sexual and asexual processes. Moreover, others require multiple hosts to finish their life cycle.

Treatment of Bacterial Disease

Treatment of this bacteria uses combinations of many antibiotics which kill Mycobacterium Leprae. Examples of antibiotics are dapsone, clofazimine, and rifampin. Antibiotics must be regularly taken to avoid regrowth of the bacteria in the body.

Prevention of Bacterial Disease

Prevention of these bacterial diseases can be done by avoiding close contact with leprosy signs and not being treated. Moreover, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in case one starts to experience those signs (Maymont et al., 2020). For household contacts, annual exterminations are highly advised for at least five years after contact with an individual with such signs and leprosy symptoms.


Carvalho, A. P. M., Coelho, A. D. C. O., Correa-Oliveira, R., & Lana, F. C. F. (2017). Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts. MemĂłrias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 112(9), 609-616.https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S007402762012000800015

Maymont, M. B., Venkatesh, S., Laughter, M., Abdel, R., Hugh, J., Dawson, M. M., ... & Dellavalle, R. P. (2020). Leprosy: Treatment and management of complications. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 83(1), 17-30. https://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(20)30473-4/fulltext

Rau, M., Rehman, A., Dittrich, M., Groen, A. K., Hermanns, H. M., Seyfried, F., ... & Geier, A. (2018). Fecal SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria in human NAFLD's gut microbiome are a putative link to systemic T-cell activation and advanced disease. United European Gastroenterology Journal, 6(10), 1496-1507. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297934/

Reed, S. G., & Duthie, M. S. (2016). Vaccines for the prevention of leprosy. The international textbook of leprosy, Scollard DM, Gillis TP. https://www.internationaltextbookofleprosy.org/chapter/vaccines-prevention-leprosy

Sundin G. W., Castiblanco, L. F., Yuan, X., Zeng, Q., & Yang, C. H. (2016). Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation, and prospects: challenges in bacterial molecular plant pathology. Molecular plant pathology, 17(9), 1506-1518. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27238249/

Cite this page

Exploring Mycobacterium Leprae: Structure, Epidemiology, and Management of Hansen's Disease - Essay Sample. (2023, Dec 16). Retrieved from https://speedypaper.com/essays/exploring-mycobacterium-leprae-structure-epidemiology-and-management-of-hansens-disease

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism