Explain the main ideas of liberalism

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Slavery not only oppresses the laborers but also hinders them from achieving their full potential. Therefore, it is important that people are free to realize their full productivity. Liberalism is a focus of human freedom and equity. Liberalism deals with defending peoples rights and freedom.

2. The view that human beings are actually not free could be called "the myth of the free" please discuss in what respect human beings could be considered as unfree

The world is far from achieving total freedom. Freedom is the liberty to do things as one will. It is not quite the case even now because people are not totally free to do what they will. Rather there are underlying conditions that govern the way people live, and what they choose to do. Although slavery is not as extreme as some years back, the fact is people are still not free.

3. What are the main differences between right wing and left wing ideologies?

Some people acknowledge that there is a need for government to have some power and control of parts of the operations of the country. Some of these powers include free public education, food provision, health care, environmental laws and regulations, unemployment settlement, and policies on industries. This is the left wing ideology. The ideology suggests that the society best operates with the involvement of the government. This ideology is opposed to the right wing ideology, where the supporters believe that the society functions best when the government has minimal power. Supporters of this ideology believe that people are more productive when they have the liberty to control the operations of the society.

4. Please explain the concept of the invisible hand Adam Smith

Adam Smith in his theory invisible hand believed that people achieved more for the society when they are pursuing their personal goals as opposed to when they are actually trying to achieve more for the society. When an individuals aim is self-benefit, the amount of work and passion they are willing and ready to inject in a goal is more than if the goal is to benefit the society.

5. To what extend is happiness attainable by humans according to Aristotle?

According to Aristotle happiness is an individual responsibility. Happiness is the main reason for life. As much as people pursue other things in life, such as wealth, a good name, and self-pleasure, happiness is what they are really yearning. According to Aristotle, happiness has often been mistaken for pleasurable sensation which should not be the case. He believes that unlike pleasurable sensation which can be gained and lost within a moment, happiness is a summation of an individuals entire life. Therefore according to Aristotle, happiness can only be attained and gauged after an individual has lived their entire life. The minor things that bring pleasure to an individual are the ultimate indicators of a happy life

6. Explain the importance of habits in the Aristotelian ethics

Aristotle believes that there should be a balance between the soul of an individual, and what the individual wills to do. This balance constitutes the ethics that bring forth ultimate happiness. Some of the traits included judgment, goodwill and so on. Aristotle believed when people made these traits a habit (routine) morality would increase and the quality of lives people lives would be considered happy at the end.

7. According to Schopenhauer what kind of activities should we focus on to be free and why?

Schopenhauer believed that humans ought to be holy beings. He believed that humans were intelligent just like Kant. Schopenhauer believed that humans should focus on pity and compassion. These were the main pillars of morality. With these traits survival was made easy and people would lead happy lives (Kakkori & Huttunen, 2013).

8. How would you compare Aristotle and Kant's view on happiness?

According to both Kant and Aristotle, happiness and morality are intertwined. However, the difference in the theories is the starting points. According to Kant, the morality that brings forth happiness can be practiced by everyone. Aristotle, on the other hand, thinks that only the wise can practice morality. Therefore, only the wise can ultimately be said to have lead happy lives.

9. What is the difference between categorical and hypothetical imperatives for Immanuel Kant?

Imperatives according to Immanuel Kant referred to the things one ought to do. There were things that one was supposed to do due to a possible or certain desired result. Such things were the hypothetical imperatives. Categorical imperatives, on the other hand, were necessary and unconditional conditions that had to be met in any moral situation (Kant, 2007).

10. Try to make some links between Nietzsche's thought and biography

Nietzsche thought that pity was the major threat to morality. Just like Aristotle, Nietzsche's believed that only a selected few (the noble) deserved to be educated, and hence, moral. However, Nietzsche also believed that morality ought to be out of duty just like Immanuel Kant.

11. What does Nihilism mean for Nietzsche?

Nihilism originated from a Latin word nihili which means nothing. It is a trait of discrediting all beliefs. Nihilists believe that nothing exists and nothing can be explained. This trait is shown by excess pessimism. Fredrich Nietzsche was a philosopher who was majorly associated with nihilism. He believed that nothing really existed, and there was no reason to find an answer for anything because the reality is none existed. He believed that all things should be destroyed and actually it was a human responsibility to take the plough on their shoulders and actually destroy it.

12. Why does Nietzsche consider morality as a "greatest of all dangers?Fredrich Nietzsche defines morality in two main categories, Master-morality, and slavery-morality. Master-morality valued traits such as pride and nobility, and slavery-morality and slavery-morality valued traits such as humility and compassion. However, he considered morality as the greatest of all dangers. His belief was based on the fact that morality wad both unrealistic and unattainable. Therefore, it only made people unable to be truly productive.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Kakkori, L., & Huttunen, R. (2013, August 9). www.eepat.net. Retrieved May 9, 2016,

from eepat: http://eepat.net/doku.php?id=schopenhauer_and_nietzsche_on_moral_growth

Kant, I. (2007). Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

sheldon

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