|Type of paper:||Course work|
Pretest-posttest control group
Means of independents samples test has compared the overall achievement grades of the control and the experimental group. The data acquired are as follows: 12/B that has eight, female students and 19 students, male have been selected as the experiment group, and 12/C, which has nine female and 18 male students, has been selected as the chosen group. Out of the two groups who were involved in the study, grade point is the mean of the 10th students while grade point is mean of the 11th students undertaking biology course and grade points they obtained in forming control and experiments groups. Cluster Analysis created the data and analyzed with SPSS (Dimitrov, 2013).
The data collection and analysis
The theoretical framework has been developed through analyzing the data obtained from experts. Experimental data was gathered by an average of an achievement test. The students were given an achievement test after just after application. After creating the specific groups, traditional technique was applied to both experiment and control group . In the enhancement of the tools used in testing in the evaluation of data have been used. During data analysis, standard deviation, arithmetical mean , item discrimination index, item difficulty index, frequency and percentage , and KR20 coefficient have been applied. Paired independent and samples test was used so that the data obtained from the samples selected from the research can be compared. The interval of reliability for the analysis of statistical data have been estimated as 00.05 and in the analysis of the SPSS,
The data collection tools
The information about data collection tools is applied to estimate the performances in accordance with the learning environment where the control and experiment group have been used.
Achievement tests (Final test and Pre-Test)
As long as is, the participation is the subject of the research of the students in the biology course, the aim of achievement has been created just like a repetitive test and have been tested on the students both after and before the experiment.
Pre-Test; it was designed to evaluate the knowledge of the students before conducting the experimental study. A total of 26 multiple choices questions were set in biology subject with the assistance of expert advice. The test pre-application has been carried out to a total of 92 students, and it was concluded that KR-20=0.69. The levels of discrimination that are negative or zero have been eliminated from the test. The test was applied to a total of 64 students who were in control and experiment group. Item discrimination and Pre-test item were calculated. The total of Pre-test item difficulty was calculated and found to be 5.7 and levels of item discrimination is low. This can be explained that approximately all the pre-knowledge of the students on the biology subject is not effective . Final test. A test comprising 21 items was carried out on the students to test the level of knowledge of the students that they obtained after the operation. A total of 64 subjects who are in the control and experimental groups take part in the application. The item difficulty was 14.74, and item discrimination total was 7.85. Therefore the final test is termed as medium difficulty. This can be explained that the pre-knowledge of the students on the subjects is relatively efficient.
The sample involved 360 nursing students in first -semester skills or basic course within five programs. The programs are situated across the country, including Midwest, Southeast, and West. A power analysis was computed (significance =05, power =99) showing that it is possible to detect a medium effect size, confirmation of sufficient sample size applied in data analysis. The study design was evaluating the relationship that exists between cultural awareness and virtual awareness among the students taking a nursing course. The faculty agreed to teach the basic nursing course by use of intervention for one academic year. As the semester came to an end, participants were through with the survey. The analysis involved comparative and descriptive statistic (Hicks, 2014). Board approval was obtained at each program of nursing before the start of the study. To minimize bias that was associated with the conflict of interest, the supervisor agreed to work with other researchers from other recognized institution for data analysis and collection.
The intervention that was used in the study was the virtual community that is referred to as the Neighborhood. The neighborhood includes the stories of 50 characters for three semesters. Individuals and the stories of the nurse character focusing on the issues of professional practice. The stories are mainly enhanced with video clips, photos, and medical records. A homepage and a newspaper connect community events to character stories. Faculty makes use of applications and other stories as a learning basis with the intention of drawing connections to ideas in clinical and didactic courses. Since the characters are more diverse, there are several opportunities for discussion and learning activities related to differences in decision making and personal preferences among the character. In qualitative studies that involve undergraduate students in a nursing program, engagement and emotional correctness were the central themes that were reported among members who utilized the neighborhood for several academic semesters.
In another study that involved a total of undergraduate students, nursing students who applied Neighborhood, the biggest. Before the start of the study, members of the faculty that were teaching the basic course from every school that attended the workshop to learn the method to include the intervention in their teaching. The specific information at the workshop was the virtual community, learning to log on and pedagogical basis. Surveys were completed, and 341 participants were collected out of 352 nursing students who were enrolled in a first level from the five schools in a first-level course. The high response level was due to the method of data collection (Winer, 2013).
Surveys were conducted during class sessions. The majority of the participants were women; the average age of participants was 24 years. The racial distribution was 18.4% African American, 55.7% White, 0.8% Native American, 3.9% Pacific Islander , 16.9% Asian and 5.6% mixed race. Twenty participants could not self-identify ethnicity or race.
Time-series (repeated measures)
A quasi-experimental design was applied to estimate the retention of the knowledge of program content that allows educational intervention (Fraenkel, 2013). The modality included both classrooms and online components. It was hypothesized by the researchers that there would be a rise in learning retention for the workers who are done with the educational intervention as evaluated by test scores. Sample Participants and settings were recruited from the departments of emergency of the healthcare systems in the Midwest United States.
One system was a specialty system in pediatric with two departments of emergency, community-based, and pediatric trauma. The other system was a teaching system with emergency department and trauma center. The criteria were that those involved were to complete all elements of the education offered that were provided to the employees. The participants who were eligible were social workers, nurses, assistive personnel and life specialists.
Completing the education was the necessity for the new workplace policy of pediatric system and not to a specific study. About 84% of the 239 employees from the pediatric departments finished the training. Completing at an adult level, the hybrid education was necessary for the participants of the emergency team and was not compulsory for other employees. 170 employees from the pediatric participated.
The sample study was discussed with ranges and mean for intervals and percentages for ordinal and nominal data. Test scores for Time 1 or Time 2 or Time 3 were assumed to be means. Repeated measures by use of Wilks L statistics was carried out to know if the test score of an individual changed between Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3. The statistics are used to analyze any changes within subjects under study with the repeated study of measure. (Barlow, 2017).
Barlow, D. H. (2017). Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior for change (No. Sirsi) i9780205474554).
Dimitrov, D. M.. (2013). Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work, 20(2), 159-165.
Fraenkel, J. R.,(2013). How to design and evaluate research in education (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hicks, C. R. (2014). Fundamental concepts in the design of experiments (Vol. 40). New York: Oxford University Press.
Winer, B. J. (2013). Statistical principles in experimental design.
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