|Type of paper:||Research paper|
|Categories:||Ethics Artificial intelligence|
The Brain-computer interface well-known as BCI is a collaboration between a brain and a device that allows signals that comes from the brain to control some of the external activity like the control of a cursor on a computer machine. On the other hand, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical process that involves the placement of a neuro-stimulator (brain peacemaker). The installation of the neuro-stimulator helps in the transmission of the impulses through the implanted electrodes to the targets in the brain for treatment. The neuro-stimulator uses electric pulses when regulating the activities of the brain. When the BCI and DBS techniques are combined, they quickly help in mind control, influencing an individual's moods swings and depressions. The BCI will detect the changes while DBS will help in the activation of brain cells responsible for adjusting these changes. Many technologists have come up with the notion of creating an implant (a combination of the BCI and DBS) in the treatment of patients (Pichiorri et al., 2018). Besides the comprehensive benefits that come with these technological advancements, there are ethical concerns that need to be addressed.
Other Uses of Artificial Intelligence and Possible Ethical Significance
The technological development of brain-computer interface and the deep brain stimulation have several other uses other than the detection of a mood swing, which will aid in the management of depression. Other productive uses of these artificial intelligence applications include deep learning where the brain is stimulated to receive new ideas and conceptualize the concept behind the ideas. Deep brain stimulation itself can be used in the management of patients with disorders such as tremor, mental disorientation, Parkinsonism diseases and also dystonia. These conditions emanate from incapacitating motor system while Brain-computer interfaces allow the patient to communicate with the external devices by means of brain signals rather than the usual paths of the nerves and muscles. It is useful for the disabled to control the prosthetic leg or arms, expression of thought mainly among the deaf and in control of other gargets such as wheelchairs.
The use of artificial intelligence raises some ethical concerns associated with the expression of thought. This means that the amount of information obtained from an individual is not conditioned or controlled to any limit. At the same time, the use of the acquired information in enhancing the level of understanding and retention of knowledge can cause the individual to feel lesser human or more robotic.
Stakeholders Involved and the Possible Group for Consultation
The group of stakeholders involved includes the artificial intelligence developer, who performs the work of developing artificial intelligence and integrating its application system, powering off the device, and other equipment. At the same time, the user company who uses artificial intelligence in their daily operation and organization management functions also forms part of the stakeholders. Finally, the consumers of these products who use them to go about their daily activities, the government, and the public should be consulted about the development of such project and its goals because they play a fundamental role in assessing these technologies.
Partial Steps Needed to Manage Ethical Issues in this Project
The developer needed to address several ethical issues before dispatching the artificial devices to the consumers. User privacy and the control of cybercrime should be appropriately handled since a glitch in these areas makes the end-users vulnerable to high risk of cyberattacks. This can lead to an ethical manipulation of an individual's mind. The developer should also ensure that the artificial intelligent do not interfere with individual privacy, which might restrict consumers freedom as external sources can monitor the individual activities and manipulate for personal use. Finally, the developer should keep in place the mechanism for correction of any disorder that might occur with the device. In order to manage the ethical landscape of this project, the developer must undertake several steps, which include understanding the nature of the environment. This will help the developer understand the target consumer thoughts and concern, disclosing relevant information in the right way with consideration of privacy and emotional satisfaction of the consumers in mind. As much as the implant may be useful in the treatment of disorders of moods, behavior, and thought, it is ethical to consider the risk that may come from the application of this implant. The developers of these products have the mandate to address the issues that may negatively affect the procedure if in the case is done to any patient. Besides, the balance of anticipated benefits to the patients and the expected risks must also be scrutinized on an individual basis, and the patient kept aware of. Dr Jens Clausen of the Department of Medical Ethics tries to pass on the question of personality in terms of alterations behaviors which could come up due to the implant (Mirzadeh et al., 2018). This still raises the question of privacy and confidentiality of artificial intelligence users.
Ethical Issues the Developer Need to Address
Moreover, the other ethical issues that need to be addressed is the deceptive or fraud role that the media plays in on the perception of this implant. The media has, over the years, focused on the positive side of the story related to these technologies. Therefore, this kind of misinterpretations can lead to the creation of expectation gaps where the patients expect the implants to be more efficient or even more comfortable to use than it is. This will, therefore, lead to disappointments stemming from over expectations. In the long run, this can lead to an increase in depressions. Consequently, despite many researchers seeing the implant as beneficial to the coming generation, there is a limited study on the implications that it brings. The ethic literature insinuates that these benefits could come up with both moral and societal challenges (Castillo-Garcia et al., 2018). The conflicting ethical values rely on the fact that artificial intelligence is becoming better and better, whereas there is a need to create equality among human. There is a conflict when dealing with unexpected situations while handling real-world issues. To a large extent, there are some artificial intelligence issues cannot be solved with modern technology, but also requires human compilation.
Evaluation of the Project
The project can be evaluated ethically by establishing trust with the consumers. Keeping the consumer's continuous progress, adaptation and response to the devices, it level of utility and efficiency. This can be done through efficient data sharing with proper incorporation of regulatory approach
How Project Team Can Sort and Prioritize Ethical Issues
As a project team, it is crucial to address these ethical issues. Information privacy and psychological privacy should be prioritized when discussing ethical issues. This kind of challenges will be sorted out, mainly related to liberty, personal identity, safety, and wellbeing in terms of psychology. Privacy must be prioritized because the implant may bring long-term psychological and security problems.
Appropriate Person within the Company to Address the Ethical Issues
The manager should be responsible for upholding ethical code of conduct and at the same time, demonstrate to others direction to follow and manage confirm ethical norms. To uphold ethical norms, it is essential first to establish all the facts, identifying the options and risks, evaluating of opportunities, choosing the best choice, and implement the decision. At the start of the implant, the company should have in mind the choices they have put in place to manage all the ethical issues.
In conclusion, both the Brain-computer interfaces and deep brain stimulation plays a fundamental role in artificial intelligence. Nevertheless, there is a need to put into consideration the ethical norms and policy guidelines that control the privacy and safety of users. This helps the developers understand the target consumer thoughts and concern, disclose relevant information appropriately for the benefit of the existing and coming generation.
Pichiorri, F., Morone, G., Petti, M., Toppi, J., Pisotta, I., Molinari, M., ... & Mattia, D. (2015). Brain-computer interface boosts motor imagery practice during stroke recovery. Annals of neurology, 77(5), 851-865. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1002/ana24390
Castillo-Garcia, J. F., Muller, S., Caicedo-Bravo, E. F., Bastos, T. F., & De Souza, A. F. (2018). Nonfatigating Brain-Computer Interface Based on SSVEP and ERD to Command an Autonomous Car. Advances in Data Science and Adaptive Analysis, 10(02), 1840005. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1142/S2424922X18400053
Mirzadeh, Z., Chen, T., Chapple, K. M., Lambert, M., Karis, J. P., Dhall, R., & Ponce, F. A. (2018). Procedural variables influencing stereotactic accuracy and efficiency in deep brain stimulation surgery. Operative Neurosurgery, 17(1), 70-78. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1093/ons/opy291
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