This paper is providing an overview of the debate relating to the convergence-divergence issue in western and non-western states about human resource management by providing an insight into the policies, strategies, and practices in those states. The research further covers public and private sector organizations and their relationship with human resource. The paper also covers on the stakeholder and ethical theories regarding Human Resource that has, for years, been seen as a nascent and rare occurrence. Moreover, it further depicts the concept of responsibility on organizations as a mode of evaluating organizational maturity in context with employee governance not forgetting the rational in business for the introduction of ethics in corporate governance and Human Resource.
Currently, theory development in SIHRM is classified under two assumptions; a commonly known assumption that multinational enterprises need special theory creation efforts to base the researchers' comprehension of the form of organization quite clearly and evidently. Different factors manage the human resource. This includes political, economic, and even cultural in diverse cultures. A Common obstacle affecting human resource management internationally constitutes different kinds of organization, workforce value and the adaptive culture nature. The following factors paint a clear picture of how the particular factors affect human resource management (Boxall et al. 2011).
Based on the insights of practitioners and research carried out by scholarly experts in Human Resource Management (HRM), the task of procuring, allocating, and effective utilization of resources in business internationally defines International Human Resource Management. Various activities and measures are put in place to facilitate effective management of organizational objectives and achievement of competitive merits over competitors at both national and international levels. Further, it involves the management of various types of employees including employees that reside from the home country in which the company's headquarters are situated, the employees that belong to the state in which the company's subsidiary is run and also the employees that neither resides from the company's home country nor from the states that run the company's subsidiary but work with the firm at its headquarters or subsidiaries.
Recruitment is the in depth seeking of potential candidates for jobs. Selection on the other hand, is the evaluation of the recruited candidates and their suitability for the job types and positions. In an example to determine the right candidate for a multi-national corporation- MNC job with the intention to fill a managerial position at subsidiary in Italy, there are more than one candidates each from a different country; an Italia citizen, a French national and a manager from the diaspora- one that does not reside from the company's headquarters or subsidiary. In such an instance, several stuffing methods are employed to implement and oversee the selection of the candidates. A home-country national- Italian national in this case has vast knowledge concerning the MNC and the strategies of the headquarters and procedures; this is because they share extensive culture with the employees working in the multi-national company (Jackson et al. 1997). The major aim of training about SIHRM has often been CCT programs designed mainly for purposes of educating employees. Conditional cash transfer (CCT) refers to funds that are set aside to see that the poverty cycle in the world is brought to a stop, it however entails enlightening the globe to better and effective methods of getting funds to bring poverty to a halt indefinitely.
Influence of IHRM on management educators and the latter
Most importantly human resource management helps in maintaining and containing atmosphere at work places. Better and efficient working conditions and the working place is what an employer would want to be able to perform his or her duties with ease and perfection. A clean and safe environment is what human resource persons wait and anticipate to be offered in any working platform. This clean environment always brings out better results from an employer. This is what all employers should offer to their employee'. This also enables and enhances teamwork between employers. It enables employers to work and exploit in unison in whatever comes up that is hard or difficult to handle. With teamwork, difficult working situations can easily be tackled and a solution resolved on the particular issue itching minds. With this, employers can co-ordinate and adjust to any other issue or shortcoming that they come across in any field of their working place. Teamwork is always a long-lasting solution to all difficulties in all organizations all over. Teamwork should be embraced to facilitate easy coordination in working places and even manages to avoid conflicts (Brewster 2007).
Political factors: stability of political nations is one thing that is accredited all over the globe, despite the variation of political systems in different countries all over the world. This affects the human resource management in that in some countries the military may take over the government and rule on their will. Others fall into the hands of dictators who suppress the citizens. Not forgetting the one party system that has always paved the way for corruptive officers in the government to embezzle funds. International firms are left behind to make decisions on which rules to comply with and which not to comply with. Human resource management varies across different countries with different regulations. Some countries like in Western Europe, it is unheard of to hear that employees have been sacked or reduced. This is because the payments tend to be high to the particulars that have been sacked or reduced from the organizations. Laws are also set to address harassment of citizens and from discrimination like racism. Some are even set to put a stop to political witch-hunt and even religious persecution. All these discussed political issues are set to stress and show how crucial it is for the human resource management personnel and professions put in place in specific countries. A comprehensive review of the political environment and temperature in specific countries should be established not forgetting the employer employee related issue. Laws governing the hiring and firing of employees should be put in place, stipulated by the law, and followed to the letter. Labor unions should either ensure workers under their unions are not victimized in any form (Gomez et al. 1995).
Either, IHRM has played a major role in the war against gender bias. Women can get jobs and even promotions just like their male counterparts. IHRM had however considered women that hold MBA degrees and who used to be inferior when it came to matters concerning the management and seniority. For instance, in Costa Rica, statistics show that the number of women leading various organizations as managers and those that serve as legislators adds up to approximately 53% as compared to their male counterparts. Contrary to the fact that women are nowadays considered and given a chance equally as their male counterparts in the job market, the case is different in some countries for instance in Latin America where; job adverts in newspapers contain age limits or specification of the required age, women are underpaid in similar positions as their male employees and men hired in large numbers leaving out women. Nevertheless, pregnancy tests are a requirement in Central America to be accepted for a job (Brewster, 2017).
Stabilization of national economies in turn increases the labor demand, so does salaries, and wages of the employees. Stabilization of the economy hence enhances stronger interrelation among workers and effective communication among the workers and between firms' headquarters and their subsidiaries. Any alteration in the state of the economy results to the downgrade of the relationship between the workers and the employees as their standards of living are adversely impacted.
Better and robust state of national economies plays a major role in the human resource sector in that, it facilitates the recruitment of expatriates who are skilled from other countries. An instance in turkey in 2001, the state of its economy had deteriorated rapidly. The Turkish government opted for recession together with downsizing which adversely accelerated the termination of work contracts- operation of almost all organizations were brought to a halt and this in turn rendered most employees jobless (Brewster, 2017).
Organization structures influence the flexibility of human resource. There exist two types of structures; horizontal and vertical. Organizations that are vertically structured are known to possess hard types of hierarchy by which HR is maintained under fixed and tight control. Nevertheless, horizontally structured organizations provide flexibility in human resource management- including the employees (Brewster, 2017).
Convergence and divergence in westernised and non- westernised states in Human Resource Management
The prospects for convergence for instance in asian states, is low at the enterprise. This is due to evolutionary or gradual change in the enterprise. Hence, human resource convergence could still occur as a result of the revolutionary change which would in turn delve into a reconsideration of the organizational structuring of the Human Resource system. The reconsideration is facilitated through imposing external conditions just like the Korean case during the finacial crisis which similarly happened in Thailand. The International Monetary Fund imposed conditions in Korea was to look into legislation means of ending employment on a lifetime basis and in return be liable to financial support.
Conditions get adverse when converging global economies shift to divergence at intra-national and national levels due to mediation from different institutions and different cultures and traditions. Overall, among the reasons that lower the prospects for convergence is the difference in stages of economic and industrial development among countries, unique cultural features, institutions, and value systems, different choices at societal and organizational levels of content and nature of employment statuses, variation in take-up and operation of technology and proportional solutions to regular problems.
Plenty of the detailed research into IHRM has over the past, been lacking and descriptive in analytical rigor and often self-centered hence much of the existing research is ignored. Nonetheless, research in SIHRM too, suffers from low response rates, small sample size, and frequent restriction to quantitative analysis.
In different organizations all over, there are always disputes that hinder corporation, these disputes disrupt and spoil the friendship that exists between individuals, and organizations. Disputes never bring out any positive results in any company. Employers and employees always fall into conflicts now and then. Conflicts are always inevitable to come up with any scenario. The human resource comes up on this issue to help and come up with a better solution concerning the conflict. It works as a mediator in solving the current situation between the different parties. It best solves the conflict by listening to both parties. Each party tables its grievances on the table and listening to determine and come up with a better solution to the conflict.
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