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Chronic Bronchitis Diagnosis
The diagnosis for chronic bronchitis can be done through the sputum culture test. This involves taking a sample of gooey substance from the patient which originates from the chest when the patient has an infection in the airways or lungs. When an individual's lungs and mouth get irritate by air pollution or smoke the body generates sputum or phlegm. When a patient coughs the body is trying to remove the mucus. Another test is the Pulmonary Function Testing which is mostly used as a diagnostic test for bronchitis. It involves some breathing exercises which measure the patient's airflow. In addition to this, it measures the volume of air in the patient's lungs which enables the doctor to examine how the lungs function (Siva et al., 2013).
Diagnostic test for Hepatitis B virus
In the diagnosis of Hepatitis B virus, the doctors evaluate the patient's blood, urine specimen or stool specimen for hepatitis B surface antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antibody. Through the Hepatitis Virus panel or test, a series of blood tests are drawn from the patient's vein at the back of the hand or inside of the elbow. Once the blood is collected, a Serology test is done to rule out acute and self-limited infections from chronic infections (Siva et al., 2013). In addition to this, the test monitors any vaccine-induced immunity. The purpose of the Serological test in the diagnosis of HBV is to detect antibody-like substances which are associated with the specific type of diseases. However in the newly recognized causative agents of Hepatitis that is non-A and non-B viral hepatitis the diagnosis used is alanine aminotransferase which is a nonspecific laboratory hepatic dysfunction (Weiner,1990).
Duodenal Ulcers Diagnosis
The diagnosis of Duodenal Ulcers requires a doctor to carry out an esophagogastroduodenoscopy or barium studies to rule in or rule out ulcers. During the EGD test, the doctor examines the patient's lining of the stomach, esophagus, and duodenum. When carrying out this test, an endoscope which is a flexible tube that is connected to a camera and light is passed down the throat through the esophagus. This enables the doctor to view the patient's digestive tract and detect if the patient has ulcers or not (Siva et al., 2013). On the other hand, doctors might use barium studies to determine if the patient has sores in their digestive system. It involves the use of barium sulfate which is a dense white radio-opaque powder that the patient swallows to allow easy visibility through the x-rays. The barium swallow is a test which examines the esophagus through x-rays and diagnosis reflux problems and swallowing that can be caused by ulcers.
Siva, R., Birring, S. S., Berry, M., Rowbottom, A., & Pavord, I. D. (2013). Peptic ulceration, Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respirology, 18(4), 728-731.
Weiner, A. J., Kuo, G., Lee, C., Rosenblatt, J., Choo, Q. L., Houghton, M., ... & Saracco, G. (1990). Detection of hepatitis C viral sequences in non-A, non-B hepatitis. The Lancet, 335(8680), 1-3.
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