|Type of paper:
|Ecology Water Pollution Air pollution
Contemporary society is significantly characterized by a large gap between developed countries and developing countries ranging from sociocultural, economic and political development. As nations advance towards achieving the millennial goal, their socio-economic activities substantially influence diverse phenomena like the environment but their ability to impact greatly varies according to their status of either developed or developing nations. For instance, most governments in both developing and developed countries have embarked on protecting the environment by passing laws and policies. However, the laws and policies are not significant if people are not willing to care for the environment. The variation in the economic developments and advancement between the developed and the developing nations has resulted in the disparity between the environmental conditions of the countries. Therefore, the report focuses on the comparison and critical analysis of multimodal differences in the environmental conditions in India and Germany highlighting the similarities and differences between the two nations.
Pollution is one of the major challenges affecting the environment across the world today. In developing nations such as India, pollution remains a major problem. With a population exceeding 1.3 billion, the environmental condition has continued to deteriorate. As India works hard to be listed among the top economies in the world, environmental concerns continue to aggravate, however, more than 37 cities in India have been featured in top 100 worst places with extreme particulate matter despite the cities being densely populated with more than 100 people per hector (Guttikunda et al. 2014). Air pollution is among the scourges that have affected the nation a great deal. According to the recent studies by Environmental Performance Index as released in 2016, India is ranked 141 out of the 180 nations in terms of the state of air pollution (Sujatha, 2017). On the other hand, air pollution in Germany has significantly reduced over the past years as the government embarked on eliminating the sources of pollutants. One of the major causes of air pollution in Germany is nitrogen dioxide emitted from diesel vehicles. The burning of fossil fuels greatly contributes to the increase in air pollution in the cities in developed nations. The government has put across measures to curb the situation which has reduced air pollution.
The high level of air pollution in India is predominantly due to the existence of massive air pollutants such as vehicle emissions, dust storms, and utilization of both wood and coal for domestic use like cooking. The mountains and hills in India also contribute to the increase in air pollution in India as they act as basins trapping the toxic air and making the air more dangerous for human inhalation (Irfan, 2018). Unlike Germany, India is land-locked making it hard for pollution to dissipate. Although Germany experiences air pollution, its situation is not as worse as it can be seen in India. Poverty is one of the major contributing factors that elevate air pollution in India. While the level of air pollution continues to decrease in Germany, the opposite is happening in India due to the state of the living conditions of the people. With the introduction of low emission zones in Germany, the country has been able to protect human health by improving air quality ever since 2008 (Jiang et al. 2017). Nevertheless, most people in India use cookstoves and kerosene lighting in the various cities as it all they can afford. Moreover, two-thirds of the Indians live in rural areas and they rely on dung and wood for cooking that emits a lot of smoke into the atmosphere which then commingles with construction dust, factory emissions and traffic exhaust in the city making a larger portion of India polluted with no clean air to breathe (Sujatha, 2017).
Additionally, like other developing nations, India do not have the resources to curb the high level of land, air and water pollution hence they end up being the victims of the scourge with an increase in climatic changes and health risks. Nevertheless, although it may be easy to halt environmental pollution in the developed nations, it will undermine competitiveness and economic growth in the developing nations such as India which are struggling to be among the economic giants across the world as they rely on natural resources. The developed nations such as Germany are established economically hence they can afford to focus on creating a clean and green environment since their basic living needs are already in place. The high and illiterate population of India is also a leading cause of the increase in air pollution as compared to Germany. It is easier to manage pollution in Germany as the population is smaller and the people are well educated hence they understand its hazards.
Garbage Disposal and Sanitation
Germany is one of the cleanest nations around the world. The environment in the country is clean and no litter can be seen on the streets. Waste products such as sanitary towels, diapers, cotton wool among other textiles, plastics and metals are recycled. Additionally, at least every household in Germany has a toilet, thus contributing to proper sanitation in the nation. The streets of India, on the contrary, are very dirty. There is garbage all over the streets and people do not bother to collect it. The nation has turned to be completely filthy. The people also recycle the reusable products while garbage cleaners help to seek out the reusable items but most of the garbage is left littered on the streets. Urine stench can be smelt as one walks along the streets in the towns making life even more unbearable. The rural regions are not better as they have garbage all over the regions. Plastics usage is a major concern in India. Consumption of plastic in the nation has been drastically increasing and by 2010, it was about 8kg and it is expected to rise up to 27kg by 2020. Sanitation is also a major issue in India (Irfan, 2018). According to statistics of The Economist, around 600 million people in and 130 million households do not have toilets. The people are still indulged in old time ancient practices like manual scavenging (Sujatha, 2017).
Germany embarked on one of the best waste management systems in the world. The country recycles the products which would have been dumped around the streets. Seventy percent of all the waste products in Germany are recycled and most reusable products are accumulated and put under high-quality recycling, hence garbage has not been a major problem in the nation. India has not taken any step in curbing garbage disposal in the nation and it would be harder to clean the streets in the country due to its vast population. In addition, plastics can take more than five hundred years to decompose naturally and once littered on the streets they remain undecomposed unless burned, which may result in air pollution. Plastic usage is also high in Germany as it continues to produce more tons of packages. The waste management plan and proper garbage disposal have helped reduce their dumping on the streets (Sujatha, 2017). Therefore, the Indian government has to come up with possible measures to help clean the streets of the country and enhance its sanitation.
In most developed nations, there is congestion on the streets with many vehicles and people moving around communicating with each other. In addition, most people in developed nations prefer using machines and electronics which are the main cause of noise pollution. However, in Germany, noise is not optioned as it a noise-free nation. People are not allowed to make a noise loud enough to escape their rooms, which may cause destruction to the neighbors (HF, 2018). Noise pollution in India is an environmental concern. The country is loud with noise coming from every corner of the streets and even in the rural areas.
In Germany, government laws dictate the time when people can make noise even from a simple mower. The people can bear the normal noise of an ambulance but they are forbidden from making a loud noise for specific hours on various days and occasions depending on the state. The laws put across has regulated and cut down the level of noise pollution in the country (HF, 2018). Noise in India is caused by industries, loudspeakers, household instruments, and vehicle traffic. Although laws have been passed to curb the situation, huge blaring speakers are still heard along the roadsides. The large population is also a major contributor to the noise in India (Sujatha, 2017).
Endangerment of Species
Animals and plants are a very essential aspect of the environment and every human being is required to care for the animals without endangering any species. Nevertheless, India is increasingly losing its biodiversity as 47 of animal and plant species have been listed to be critically endangered in India (Sujatha, 2017). The situation in Germany is no better as the animals and plants are also endangered (Umwelt Bundesamt, 2015). India is increasingly losing its biodiversity because most of the natural habitats and ecology leaves the indigenous species such as Kashmir stag, Himalayan wolf and Siberian crane among others without habitats. Pouching, pollution and rapid urbanization of India also contributes to the loss of the nation's indigenous plants and animals (Sujatha, 2017). Lack of efforts from the people and the government to protect the species puts them at risk of becoming extinct. On the other hand, half of the land in Germany is used for agriculture or as farmland which should have instead been used in a more environmentally sound manner to safeguard biodiversity. The changes in the use of the land endanger biodiversity and by 2080, Germany is estimated to have completely lost its animal and plant species (Umwelt Bundesamt, 2015).
While most water sources in India are unsafe water for human use, recent statistics reveal that the 98 percent of the water in Germany is clean for bathing and complies with the requirements of Bathing Water Directive of EU. Water pollution in Germany, however, is still an environmental issue as the water in the flowing water sources endangers its habitats. The water is safe virtually everywhere around Germany (The Local, 2018). Water pollution in India is a major environmental concern as most lakes, rivers, and surfaces are polluted. Approximately 80 percent of the water bodies in the developing nation is contaminated (Sujatha, 2019). The major cause of water pollution in India is untreated sewage. There are large amounts of sewage being released into the water and only a small portion is treated. The untreated results in contaminated water which is unsafe for bathing and consumption. In addition, Indians have turned rivers and other water sources as dump sites as litter their garbage along the water bodies contaminating the water (Sujatha, 2019). Uncontrolled urbanization is also causing an increase in water pollution as industries and people release sewage into wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams. Agricultural runoff leads to harmful organic farm products being released into the water bodies. Water sources in Germany are also polluted by the organic farm products, but the water is treated before human consumption
Conclusively, the environmental condition of Germany is way much better than India. Air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution have all been curbed and the situation continues to improve as the government comes up with policies to help boost its state. India is facing a major environmental crisis with noise, water and air pollution on the rise.
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